Introduction of digital technologies into educational processes: theory and practice

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Абдуллаева M. (2022). Introduction of digital technologies into educational processes: theory and practice. in Library, 22(1), 133–141. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/8761
Мавлюда Абдуллаева, Университет общественной безопасности Республики Узбекистан

кандидат экономических наук, профессор

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Аннотация

The article discusses the need to modernize education in the digital economy on the example of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the role of science as an objective link, where one of the priority directions of the development of the digital economy, including Uzbekistan, is the introduction of digital technologies in the educational process. Arguments are given about the dependence of competitive organizations, firms, industries and regions not only on the effective use of personnel, but also on the availability of human resources.The difference between the innovative economy and the traditional one is shown. The proposals on therole of the state in solving these issues are presented.

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INTRODUCTION OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES INTO EDUCATIONAL

PROCESSES: THEORY AND PRACTICE

Abdullayeva Mavlyuda Sadykovna

Candidate of Economic Sciences Professor

University of Public Security of the Republic of Uzbekistan Tashkent city

Abstract

The article discusses the need to modernize education in the digital economy on the
example of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the role of science as an objective
link, where one of the priority directions of the development of the digital economy,
including Uzbekistan, is the introduction of digital technologies in the educational
process. Arguments are given about the dependence of competitive organizations,
firms, industries and regions not only on the effective use of personnel, but also on
the availability of human resources. The difference between the innovative economy
and the traditional one is shown. The proposals on the role of the state in solving
these issues are presented.

Keywords

: education, digitalization, digital economy, digital technologies, artificial

intelligence, pandemic, human resources, state.

Introduction

In the digital world, it is necessary to have digital literacy, to be able to customize
digital ecosystems for yourself. Research shows that a person has something to add to
artificial intelligence in order to be stronger - this is creativity and creativity. As for
education, it is difficult to dispute the fact that live communication is extremely
important. You can talk about online learning, but a young person needs feedback
from a teacher. When even a venerable academic gives a lecture over the Internet,
perhaps he is able to establish control in an audience in which 100 people listen to
him. But if at least every second person wants to ask him about something personally,
how is this possible with virtual communication? This cannot be done in real time.
Live communication - is something that needs to be preserved in education.
Undoubtedly, online education is necessary, because it allows you to connect an
audience, maintain a quality level and accessibility for millions, and gives a person the
right to choose. But the scientific school ensures continuity.
Digitalization will lead to the death of some elements of education that are familiar
today. In a few years, dissertations in such sciences as economics, linguistics, and law
will disappear: artificial intelligence systems will cope with analysis better than


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scientists. At the same time, in some little-studied areas, dissertations will be equated
with a discovery. As for big data processing systems, there is an elusive goal - to create
a computer identical to the human brain. But humanity simply will not find enough
energy to ensure the operation of such a device. This is the advantage of a person. The
topic of balance is extremely important. It is impossible to separate humanities from
natural sciences, online education from traditional. All this is important in order to
maintain humanity's control over the surrounding world.
Currently, the education system is on the verge of serious changes. It is obvious that
it is no longer possible to carry out the educational process as it has been happening
in recent decades. The amount of data that we have to work with at the moment, the
rate of their obsolescence, is enormous. Perhaps you need to learn something else in
the modern world, because the computer will always overtake a person in terms of
knowledge, and everything he learns will become obsolete. However, no one and
nothing can replace the teacher. Mass online courses are good, but when it comes to
values, ethics, they are transmitted only from person to person. It is no coincidence
that in a post-industrial society, a sought-after skill is the ability to negotiate with
people, to feel a partner. It is important to understand what you can do and transfer
these competencies to other areas. If a person can only perform routine operations
that do not require thinking, then he will soon be replaced by a robot vacuum cleaner,
an accounting program, etc.
In the light of all these trends, the concepts of "digital economy" and "knowledge
economy" are becoming inseparable. Science and the new knowledge it produces are
the central core on which almost all aspects of the modern economy are "strung",
based on the scientific and technological paradigm - general principles and standards
of development based on innovative sources of growth associated primarily with the
use of breakthrough results of fundamental and applied research. This paradigm
includes the widespread use of the most modern methods and technologies for
research and development, including on a digital basis.
In these conditions, the role of science as an objective link is increasing, where one of
the priority directions of the development of the digital economy, including in
Uzbekistan, is the introduction of digital technologies into the educational process.
Although the attitude of society to the digitalization of education, today, cannot be
considered the same. Supporters of paper and methods of work in the old-fashioned
way consider this process premature and actively discuss this topic in social networks.
Someone just turned a blind eye to innovations and does not use the opportunities
provided, but for someone they really became the solution to many problems. For
example, the application for children Edu Market. This program was created by


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Game Zale developers and implemented by the Center for Innovation, Technology and
Strategy under the Ministry of Public Education of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The
platform is designed to provide equal opportunities for the development of children
in the world of modern technology in the form of educational exercises (with a
selection of classes by age), to promote the development of skills in the IT field,
attention, memory and logical thinking. In other words, the application is designed to
turn the gadget into a learning tool, to make the learning process more convenient,
interesting and accessible. However, there were also those who believe that gadgets
"blunt" the consciousness of children and do not help to develop in any way.
But today the picture of the world has changed dramatically - a global pandemic,
complete social isolation, closed schools. Therefore, accelerated modernization of
educational technologies is even more relevant for the Republic of Uzbekistan than
for countries with developed market economies, since the potential of the education
system is the main social resource that provides a real opportunity for an innovative
breakthrough to a higher level of economic development [6]. It is no coincidence that
2020 was named the year of the development of science, education and the digital
economy. "We need innovative development like air. We have set a goal to enter a
number of developed countries, and we will be able to enter this list only through
accelerated reforms and the development of science. The formation of the digital
economy will require huge funds and resources. But we have to start this today,
because tomorrow it will be too late"[1].
On the scale of the entire industry, one of the main policy documents defining the
vector of development of the ICT sphere in the near future is the decree of the
President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On measures for the widespread
introduction of the digital economy and e-government". According to it, it is planned
to increase the share of the digital economy in the country's GDP by 2 times by 2023
and the volume of services in this area by 3 times, bringing their exports to $ 100
million. Accordingly, in the period 2020-2022, 268 projects are planned to be
implemented in various areas of economic and economic activity [5].
The central place in solving scientific and technological problems belongs to the state,
whose role cannot be limited only to individual instruments of macro-regulation, tax
policy, budget financing or co-financing of innovative projects. We need modern
institutions and mechanisms for the transfer of capital to high-tech sectors of the
economy, including small and medium-sized businesses. Currently, scientific and
technological development - the transformation of science and technology into a key
factor in the development of the country and ensuring its ability to effectively respond
to major challenges - is considered as a strategic path for socio-economic


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transformations in the Republic of Uzbekistan. That is why one of the priorities of the
development of the digital economy in Uzbekistan is the introduction of digital
technologies in the educational process.
The first mention of the use of technological solutions in schools in Uzbekistan can be
found on the web back in 2006. Then the school-online project appeared. Its meaning
was to provide parents with a copy of the paper magazine in electronic format, as well
as sending grades via SMS messages. Later, several more similar solutions appeared,
but they were applied locally, in a very small number of schools, and practically did
not develop. As a result, the information systems market in the Republic's education
has been stagnating for more than 10 years.
After a long lull, this issue began to be discussed vividly in 2018, which was given an
impetus by the President of the country Sh.Mirziyoyev. In the summer of the same
year, the Ministry of Public Education announced the selection of companies for
cooperation aimed at digitalizing school education. According to the results of the
competition, the experts of the Center for the Introduction of Information and
Communication Technologies in the Field of Public Education of Uzbekistan selected
Kundalik from 20 applications for cooperation. This platform is designed for teachers
to compile lesson schedules, keep records of attendance and academic performance,
and automate reporting. Students and parents can view grades and homework in
Kundalik at any time, and communicate within the system on school issues. The
platform, which was not taken seriously by many, together with the efforts of the
Ministry of Public Education, helped to continue teaching children online during the
prolonged quarantine due to COVID-19. During the quarantine period, digital
platforms for education have indeed become one of the most popular resources among
Uzbeks. In the top sites of teachers and parents: Zoom, Kundalik, Khan-Academy,
Edu Market, Kitob.uz, Online-Maktab, Uzedu.uz , Utube.uz .
A big impetus in the development of digitalization of school education in the Republic
of Uzbekistan was the mass quarantine imposed in the country on March 16, 2020.
The issues of Internet speed, low digital literacy have become acute, many have
expressed distrust of new forms of education. With the arrival of the pandemic, many
business projects, medical institutions, and the education system were on standby.
Despite the unforeseen situation, for which no one was ready, the study continued,
but in a completely unusual format for everyone. The Ministry of Public Education,
together with the National Television and Radio Company of Uzbekistan, organized
the broadcast of video lessons on TV channels in accordance with the curriculum. In
addition, an online maktab portal was created for this purpose. Video lessons were


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also posted on the website of the digital educational platform Kundalik, on the TAS-
IX network and in the official publications of the MNO.
Today, regular videoconferences have become commonplace, which a few years ago
were a dream, or a performance. The launch of the unified corporate computer
network "E-education" changed everything for universities. The formation of a
common resource base has also started due to the creation of digital libraries,
systematically replenished with textbooks, methodological manuals, multimedia
courses and other materials.
Despite the understanding of the importance of ICT, unfortunately, there is still an
insufficient level of use of information technologies throughout the country. Until
recently, Uzbekistan ranked 181-st among 207 countries in the ranking of states by
Internet speed from WebsiteToolTester [6]. This is the main stumbling block on the
way of technology implementation. But, despite this, there is a noticeable progress in
this issue. From January 2019 to January 2021, the speed of fixed Internet in
Uzbekistan increased more than 3 times from 10.89 Mbit/s to 34.26 Mbit/s.
According to the service data Speedtest.net Uzbekistan is currently ranked 94th in the
overall rating for Fixed Broadband Internet speed. In January 2021, the country
managed to climb two positions. According to the indicator, the data download speed
in the republic was 34.62 Mbit/s. Mobile Internet speed reached 12.94 Mbit/s.
Uzbekistan also improved its performance on this index and rose by two points, taking
128th place.
Quarantine has had a dramatic impact on the Internet situation, which the
government and many private companies are currently trying to change for the better.
During the pandemic, many mobile operators provided free access to all educational
resources and some media, and on April 28, 2020, a decree of the President of
Uzbekistan was signed [4], according to which all healthcare institutions, schools,
preschool education organizations should be connected to high-speed Internet in
2020-2021. By 2022, digital knowledge training centers will be opened in all regions
of the country, and the share of electronic public services is planned to increase to
60%. "If we do not complete this work in the next two or three years, every year of
delay will cost our country ten years of progress," the President of the country stressed
[2]. To solve problems with the technical equipment of schools, a pilot project of the
Ministry of Public Education of Uzbekistan was also launched in February 2020 to
provide tablets and laptops to teachers in installments on preferential terms. A little
later, the Ministry of Public Education signed another agreement, under which a
project for the production of computer equipment for smart classrooms was to be
implemented by the end of 2020. The state and private EdTech companies are doing


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more than ever before to ensure that the process of digitalization of education does
not drag on for decades.
The main resources of such development are the intellectual potential of the nation,
fundamental science, technology and innovation, which are based on the latest
knowledge about nature, man and society. The results obtained in the course of
scientific research, including negative ones, contribute to the development and
dissemination of knowledge through the education system and increase the overall
intellectual potential of society. The leading role of science requires appropriate
approaches to forecasting and knowledge management, including from the point of
view of the necessary resource provision. At the same time, it should be borne in mind
that investments in knowledge do not give a quick return, but work for the future,
sometimes quite distant. And if a new powerful intellectual potential is not created in
a timely manner, communities of specialists with new competencies are not
organized, the country will not be able to realize itself in the global digital space. The
human factor will become the most important obstacle to economic growth and
innovation, including in Uzbekistan, the development of its competitiveness up to
global. In this regard, within the framework of an active scientific and technological
policy, a large-scale maneuver is required with all available resources - both material
and financial - and the skillful use of digital technologies will be of great importance
within this maneuver.
The digital economy assumes unprecedented digitalization, robotization, when robots
will perform many functions of human life, up to the functions of lawyers, judges,
investigators, doctors, teachers. As for Uzbekistan, this fact cannot but affect the labor
market: the day is not far off when only the best employees will keep their jobs in
companies, otherwise the principle of "leave or develop" will be applied, because in
the competition between technology and education, those who stimulate the
improvement of skills, who are able to take advantage of digital opportunities, win.
Now the competitiveness of organizations, firms, industries, regions, countries as a
whole depends not only on the efficiency of using available personnel, but also on the
availability of human resources.
Personnel and education, as well as the formation of research competencies and
technical reserves, are among the basic directions of the development of the digital
economy. This issue has been repeatedly noted by the President of the country
Sh.Mirziyoyev in his speeches.
In this regard, it should be noted that the pace of economic growth is directly
dependent on the amount of human capital concentrated in the field of obtaining new
knowledge. Unfortunately, in the practice of State management of the economic and


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social development of the country, such guidelines and proportions are not
established and are not justified. As a result, negative trends are forming in the
economy and in the social sphere, causing inefficient use of intellectual resources and
the gradual loss of relevant competitive advantages.
To correct the situation in the system of public administration of innovation,
education and scientific research, it is necessary to include a mechanism for
accounting for costs and results that characterize the effectiveness of the use of
professional personnel employed in these areas of activity, to assess their impact on
economic growth, production structure, social development, labor productivity and
competitiveness of the country.
It can be concluded that the application of any method of evaluating the effectiveness
of research and development should be based on the personnel component, which is
subject to accounting and forecasting not only at the national, but also at the sectoral,
regional, corporate management levels.
As a rule, the more developed a country is, the higher the share of the service sector
in the structure of GDP and in the number of employees. The innovative economy
within the framework of the scientific and technological paradigm also differs from
the traditional one in that in the process of its functioning, the share of intellectual
property in the creation of new property is growing at a higher rate. Intangible assets,
such as theoretical knowledge, scientific and technical developments, and, above all,
innovations, become a determining factor in the development of production.
Scientists, engineers, designers, designers and other specialists, as well as
entrepreneurs, become the main actors of the economic system based on
digitalization, ensuring the introduction of scientific developments that are the
locomotive of the development of other industries. In the model of such an economy,
the main added value is created with the help of the "knowledge" factor, the
consumption of the "land" production factor is reduced. In the new conditions, the
key to economic superiority is leadership in the production of high-tech products and
control over the flow of information.
The number of people employed in the research and development sector is one of the
significant factors influencing the pace of technological progress in endogenous
growth models. With an appropriate combination of parameters, an increase in the
share of people employed in this sector leads to an acceleration of scientific and
technological progress, which causes an increase in GDP per capita. Unfortunately,
Uzbekistan cannot yet state the fact that it occupies a leading position in terms of the
absolute scale of the personnel potential of the research sphere in the ranking of
states. Scientists, including young people, continue to leave Uzbekistan.


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The effects of overflow and accumulation of knowledge (including learning in the
process of work) have an impact on the possibilities of applying the results of scientific
research in the digital economy. The dissemination of knowledge takes place during
the purchase of equipment, technologies, hiring of specialists, whose training should
take place continuously in the process of introducing new technologies and mastering
innovative methods. Knowledge in the conditions of digitalization can be accumulated
and transmitted almost continuously. This fact causes the rapid development of
technologies that constantly require new scientific discoveries. As a result, the results
of science can be translated into real economic growth faster.
The state performing managerial functions bears the burden of developing
institutions and mechanisms that support the development of science and at the same
time create conditions for increasing its economic impact in order to dynamically
develop high-tech sectors of the national economy, which will allow it to take its
rightful place in the world, including in the field of digital economy. In the meantime,
this place is quite modest.
For example, China, which has significantly strengthened its position in recent years
in almost all areas, has moved closer to the main leader: it holds one second, four
third, three fourth and one fifth place. Thus, in terms of the number of global
technological reserves, China is comparable to or ahead of Japan, Germany, and the
United Kingdom [3].
One of the main problems of the domestic scientific and technological sphere is the
lack of a clear state science management system that would allow for long-term
forecasting and planning of the development of this sphere, including monitoring the
achievement of goals and the effective spending of allocated funds. The difficulty lies
in the fact that, on the one hand, different aspects of the national innovation system
are distributed among various departments, organizations and development
institutions, on the other hand, the practice of different countries shows that it is
impossible to create one effective "super-agency" dealing with science and innovation.
At the same time, management in the scientific and technological sphere requires
effective interdepartmental coordination and control.
In our opinion, it is academic science that should play an integrating role here,
ensuring the unity of the scientific space. With this approach, the functions of public
administration in the scientific and technological sphere will also be facilitated.
Today, many branches of knowledge that previously developed on their own have
become a single field. Modern science and education are multidisciplinary. There has
never been anything like this in the history of mankind, this is the point of transition
to another civilization, so the responsibility of scientists to society is growing. The


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more powerful science is, the more dangers there are, therefore, the task arises of
training people who are able to realize this danger, and the role of the state in solving
this issue is even more strengthened.

Literature

1. Mirziyoyev Sh.M. The Message of Oliy Majdis. T.: 24.01.2020
2. Mirziyoyev Sh.M. Speech at a meeting on the widespread introduction of the digital
economy and e-government. Vol.: 05/11/2020
3. Sultonov A.I. "Education in the Republic of Uzbekistan: modernization and
improvement". Education and upbringing. No. 3, pp.64-67. 2017.
4. Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On measures for the
widespread introduction of the digital economy and e-government". No.PP-4699
dated 04/28/2020
5. Sarymsakova Yu. Digital transformation of the economy: results, prospects, plans.
Gas.The Truth of the East from
6. 29.09.2020 6. Based on the materials of R&D Magazine. - 2010 - December.
7. www.tooltester.com
8. www.uzedu.uz

Библиографические ссылки

Mirziyoyev Sh.M. The Message of Oliy Majdis. T.: 24.01.2020

Mirziyoyev Sh.M. Speech at a meeting on the widespread introduction of the digital economy and e-government. Vol.: 05/11/2020

Sultonov A.I. "Education in the Republic of Uzbekistan: modernization and improvement". Education and upbringing. No. 3, pp.64-67. 2017.

Resolution of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On measures for the widespread introduction of the digital economy and e-government". No.PP-4699 dated 04/28/2020

Sarymsakova Yu. Digital transformation of the economy: results, prospects, plans. Gas.The Truth of the East from

29.09.2020 6. Based on the materials of R&D Magazine. - 2010 - December.

www.tooltester.com

www.uzedu.uz

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