Сравнительный анализ военной терминологии в узбекском и английском языках

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Kurganov А. (2019). Сравнительный анализ военной терминологии в узбекском и английском языках. in Library, 19(3), 27–36. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/12243
Anvar Kurganov, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Начальник кафедры узбекского языка и иностранных языков МВД Республики Узбекистан

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Аннотация

В данной статье рассматривается специфика военной терминологии (на материале узбекского и английского языков). Актуальность выбранной темы определяется рядом факторов, среди которых: необходимость более глубокого изучения словообразовательных и структурных особенностей военной терминологии; важность исследования терминологии в рамках сравнительного анализа, что позволяет рассматривать терминологию как упорядоченную систему; а также недостаточная научная проработанность вопросов и др. Целью статьи является сравнительный анализ военной терминологии на английском и узбекском языках, который позволяет не только сопоставить узбекоязычные и англоязычные военные термины, но и выделить их специфику Особенности. На основе проведенного автором анализа отмечается, что основной характеристикой военных терминов в английском и узбекском языках среди прочих терминологических свойств является особая сфера функционирования, которая определяется рядом признаков, позволяющих слово или словосочетание, подлежащее отнесению к военной терминологии.

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Comparative Analysis Of Military Terminology In The Uzbek And English

Languages

Anvar Mukhtorovich Kurganov

Deputy chief of the Languages learning Department of the Academy of the

Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan

e-mail:

anvarjon74_74@mail.ru

Abstract.

This article deals with the specifics of military terminology (on the

material of Uzbek and English languages). The relevance of the chosen topic is
determined by a number of factors, including: the need for a deeper study of word-
formation and structural features of military terminology; the importance of
terminology research within the framework of comparative analysis, which allows
us to consider terminology as an ordered system; as well as inadequate scientific
elaboration of issues, etc. The purpose of the article is a comparative analysis of
military terminology in English and Uzbek, which allows not only to compare
Uzbek-speaking and English-speaking military terms, but also to highlight their
specific features. Based on the analysis carried out by the author, it is noted that the
main characteristic of military terms in English and Uzbek, among other
terminological properties, is a special sphere of functioning, which is determined
by a number of signs that allow one or another word or phrase to be classified as
military terminology.

Keywords:

military terminology; comparative analysis; Uzbek-speaking and

English-speaking military terms; ways of forming terms; lexical units; notions;
warfare.


Nowadays, issues related to the study of the specifics of military terminology

in a comparative aspect (on the material of various languages) are becoming very
actual. This is due to a number of factors: first, the need for a deeper study of
word-building, semasiological, as well as structural features of military
terminology; secondly, the importance of researching terminology in the
framework of comparative analysis, which allows us to consider terminology as an
ordered system that corresponds to the modern level of science development and
meets modern research trends aimed at analyzing linguistic phenomena not in
isolation but in close relation with many other areas of knowledge (military
business, history, political science, etc.) [16, p.3-9]; and, thirdly, insufficient


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scientific development of issues and, accordingly, recognition of the need for a
comprehensive analysis.

Of particular interest in the study of military terminology is English, because

it is the most important tool of expanding external relations of Russia and Western
countries, updating international professional communication and intensive
development of professional communication in English [8, p.1-3]. Moreover, the
current paradigm shift of translational research (which is becoming more and more
anthropocentric and, therefore, interdisciplinary in nature [18, pp.2-5]), is leading
to a qualitative change in the translation of English military terminology. The
translation becomes more meaningful and capacious; it begins to incorporate
knowledge related not only to structural and word-formation features of terms but
also to an extensive range of ideas about the ―human factor‖, about various spheres
and problems, as well as about social, intercultural, political, historical and other
phenomena that appear (one way or the other) in terminology [4, p.129-136]. And
this phenomena, naturally, puts questions of the specifics of military terminology
in a comparative aspect (based on the material of the Uzbek and English
languages) from among the most relevant ones.

Specifying the level of scientific development, it should be noted that these

issues have been actively investigated by many domestic and foreign authors. In
particular, the works of K.Ya.Averbukh [1], M.N. Volodina [3], S.V. Grinev-
Grinevich [5], D.A. Kozhanov [10], A.V. Superanskaya [20], N.M. Shansky [21]
and others. The specifics of the formation of English terminology are discussed in
the works of S.N. Gorelikova [4], D.F. Kayumova, A.I. Shaidullina [8] and others.
A comparative analysis of terminology (including military) in Uzbek and English
is given in the works of M.A. Lazareva [11], Sh.Z. Dolimov [15], E.A. Ryabova
[16], A.D. Samigullina [17] and others. However, from the point of view of
complex analysis, the specifics of military terminology in a comparative aspect (on
the material of Uzbek and English languages) are not fully investigated, which
leads to a number of difficulties at the level of determining approaches and
methods of studying these issues. Thus, the purpose of this article is a comparative
analysis of military terminology in English and Uzbek languages, which (analysis)
allows not only to compare Uzbek-language and English-language military terms,
but also to highlight their main specific features.

So, now there are many definitions of the word ―term‖. For example,

according to O.S. Akhmanova, a term is a word or a word combination of a special
(scientific, technical, etc.) language that is created (adopted, borrowed, etc.) in
order to accurately express special concepts and designate special objects and


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objects [2, p.473-474]. T.L. Kandelaki believes that the term is a word or a
―lexicalized phrase‖, which requires the construction of a definition to define its
meaning in the corresponding system of concepts [7, p.6-7]. V.P. Danilenko
understands by the term a word or a word combination of a special sphere of use,
which is the name of a scientific or production-technological concept and which
has a definition [6, p.10-11]. According to S.V. Grinev-Grinevich, the term is a
special nominative lexical unit of a specific language, which is used for the exact
naming of special concepts [5, p.11-12]. These definitions reflect the main features
of a ―term‖ (its form, affiliation, presence of a definition, correlation of a term with
a concept, system, etc.), and also allow to consider it from one side or the other as
a whole.

Of particular interest is the monograph by L.A. Manerko ―The language of

modern technology: the core and the periphery‖ [13], in which the author proposes
to consider the term in the context of the ―language of technology‖, i.e. special
sphere of functioning of the national language. At the same time, the ―language of
technology‖ is associated with the concept of functional style (functional style) and
is an integral part of the entire language. The author notes that the term ―language
of technology‖, in its turn, is characterized by ―high informational content,
consistency, consistency of presentation, clarity of wording and clarity of the
expression of thought‖ [13, p.10-12]. L.A. Manerko also identifies general word
combinations in general and substantive word combinations, which are special
units of the language of technology (in particular, in English). According to the
author, complex structural substantive phrases in the language of technology are
cognitive-discursive formations (within the cognitive-discursive paradigm) formed
as a result of human categorizing activity and related simultaneously to ―cognition
and discourse‖ [13, p.113-115 ].

Of course, the terms are inextricably linked with the scope of their functions.

Terminology is the main peculiarity of the scientific language vocabulary or a
particular specialty, it is the most informative part of it [10, p.43-47]. In particular,
it is difficult to overestimate the importance of military terminology. There are a
large number of areas, especially areas related to military affairs respectively and
using military terminology, and all of them are of particular interest from the point
of view of introduction (implementation, use, etc.) of this kind of terminology in
the language. The main feature that distinguishes a military term from all other
types of nominations is its connection with military scientific concepts [8, p.1-3].
Since the formation of the term, according to V.M. Leychik, is carried out on the
basis of subject knowledge of that sphere, the concepts of which can be interpreted


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as terms [12, p. 1116], the linguistic status of the military term is confirmed by the
impact of the military branch of knowledge.

At present, military affairs play a special role in international relations; it is

not only a professional human activity but also an element of the cultural, political,
economic life of a country, an integral element of the traditions and identity of the
people [16, p.17-25]. It is not by chance that the problem of war and peaceful
coexistence of different countries is in the center of attention of specialists from
various scientific fields. For linguists, the language of military affairs, in particular
its terminology is of particular interest. Based on the notion of a term as a special
nominative lexical unit of a specific language, which is used for the exact naming
of special concepts [5, p.11-12] it can be assumed that military terms are special
words, phrases, professionalisms, etc., limited to the scope of use and the subject to
affiliation, in this case the military sphere.

It is very difficult to draw the clear boundaries of the term ―military term‖,

since the sphere of functioning of military terminology is rather broad and
numerous commonly used terms have a special, narrower meaning in it. For
instance, according to V.N. Shevchuk, military terminology includes stable units of
synthetic or analytical nominations, assigned to the corresponding concepts in the
conceptual and functional system of various areas of the military profession in
terms of its definition [22, p.7-9]. However, one should not limit oneself to
military affairs, since within this vast area there are many branches that should be
considered as various independent areas of knowledge or activity [19, p.82-84]. In
this regard, it is advisable to distinguish the following groups of military
terminology:

- military-political terminology (strategic, tactical);
- military diplomatic terminology (organizational);
- military-technical terminology (refers to different forms and types of armed

forces and types of troops).

The terms of these groups are commonly used by professionals who are

associated (one way or another) with the area of the military-armed forces, i.e.
military personnel, politicians, political and military observers, media workers,
organizers of various events, representatives of government bodies in the field of
military-armed forces, etc. It should be noted that linguistic units, which are used
in colloquial speech by military personnel, play an equally important role, along
with official, stylistically neutral terminology [8, p.1-3]. They form a separate
group of titles - professionalisms (they are often referred to as a group of colloquial
terms); such concepts are very often found in the media.


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One can also refer linguistic units to military terminology, which, although

they do not denote military concepts, are used exclusively in the military
environment, but are not so known in general use. For example, in Uzbek: a
гирдобли - a helicopter, кўкдори - a forest belt, мушт - a tank; in English:
boondocks - чакалакзор, behavior report – уйга хат, side arms – ошхона
анжомлари, etc. Military terminology also includes emotionally colored
vocabulary, which, as a rule, consists of stylistic synonyms corresponding to
military terminology [16, p.83-99]. For example, in English, the words doughboy
and infantryman mean ―пиѐда аскар‖. It should be noted that changing the
composition of military terminology, especially its continuous replenishment, the
loss of a number of linguistic units from it, the transformation of meanings, etc.,
are closely interrelated with the constant development and formation of the general
conditions for the activity of the military forces.

Among the main areas of functioning of military terminology in modern

Uzbek and English one can distinguish the following [17, p.11-18]:

- Terms covering the development of new types of weapons. For example, in

Uzbek: радиоактив снаряд, замонавий ракета ташувчилари; минтақалараро
баллистик ракета; in English: wire-guarded missile – бошқариладиган ракета,
laser range finder – лазер ѐрдамида асофани ўлчаш, rocket-assisted projectile –
актив ва реактивли хусусиятга эга снаряд, etc.);

- terms associated with the modification of certain fundamentally important

provisions (doctrines) relating to tactics and military-operational art. For example,
in Uzbek: қўшинни кузатиб борувчи самолѐтлар, ядро қуролидан тийилиш,
ҳаво-космик ҳимоя; in English: electronic countermeasures – электрон қарши
таъсир, embargo – фаолиятни тўхтатиш, таъқиқ, guerilla war – партизанлар
уруши, etc.);

- Terms relating to the reorganization of the formations of the ground forces

and the higher authorities. For example, in Uzbek: акустик база, ҳарбий
инфраструктура, кузатув журнали; in English: logistics operations center –
фронт орқасининг бошқарув маркази, besiege – қуршаб олмоқ, bivouac -
тунаш, тунаб қолиш, қўниш etc.

From a linguistic point of view, military terms can be classified by the

structure (number of components), for example, the following groups of terms are
distinguished:

- terms-words (this group includes both simple single-word terms and

compund terms, which are formed by adding the basics and which are written
together

or

through

a

hyphen).

For

example,

in

Uzbek,


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асосий кучлардан орқадаги ҳарбий қисмлар, халокат сигналини юбориш,
аркебузир (қурол). In English, activator-активатор (фаоллаштириш,
тезлаштириш), bombardment-бомбардимон қилмоқ, cockpit-учувчи бошқарув
жойи;

- terms-phrases (this group includes compound or multicomponent terms that

have a structural and semantic unity and constitute a ―dissected terminated
nomination‖ [23, pp.52-53]). For example, in Uzbek, аэрокосмик банк, кема
мустаҳкамлигини ошириш, артиллерия минораси. In English, active loop-фаол
цикл, autopilot servo-автопилот сервоприводи, auxiliary barrel-

ѐрдамчи

цилиндр.

Military terms are formed in the usual way of word-formation inherent in

Uzbek and English: morphological and lexical-semantic methods, by borrowing
from other areas of science and technology, from other languages, as well as on the
basis of combining various phrases [16, p.98-117]. Let’s consider the ways of
forming military terms in Uzbek and English in more detail (almost all examples of
military terms in Uzbek are taken from the ―Dictionary of military terms‖ by A.M.
Plekhov [14], in English - from the ―English-Russian Dictionary of military and
related vocabulary‖ V.B. Kiselev [9]).

1. Methods of formation of terms-words:
a) Affixation method - implies the formation of new terms by attaching

affixes to the root elements: prefixes and suffixes. For example, in Uzbek: (-чи)
прокаткачи, бомбардимончи; in English: (-er) armorer – қурол-аслаха
омборхонаси бошқарувчиси, (counter-) countersniper, - lit. per. қаршисидаги
снайпер, (-ions) conscriptions — ҳарбий хизматга чақирув, (-ing, -up) pick (ing)
-up – ушлаб қолиш усули билан ердан ҳисоботларни қабул қилиш, etc.;

b) The way of composition - involves the formation of terms by combining

the roots of two or three words. For example, in Uzbek: самолѐт ташувчиси,
аэромобиллик, газаниқловчи; in English: battlefield – жанг майдони, rifleman -
ўқчи, countdown – тескари ҳисоб, maintainability – таъмирлаш қобилияти,
таъмирлаш мумкин бўлган, repairman – механизмларни таъмирлаш бўйича
мутахассис, etc.;

c) The way of conversion - implies the formation of new terms due to the fact

that some already existing words, without changing, receive the meaning of
another part of speech. For example, in Uzbek: навбатчи, қўмондон, ҳарбий; in
English: mortar - to mortar (миномет –

сўзма-сўз таржима

миномѐт билан

ўққа тутмоқ), shell- to shell; rocket - to rocket (ракета –

сўзма-сўз таржима

ракета бўлиб учиш), etc.;


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d) The method of reduction - involves the reduction or disappearance of

individual parts of the sound envelope or the graphic form of the word. For
example, in Uzbek: АГ – армия гуруҳи, ҲҲҚҚ – ҳаво ҳужумига қарши қурол-
яроғ, ПЖМ – пиѐда жанговар машинаси, ТҚҚГ – танкка қарши қўл
граномѐти; in English: USN (United States Navy) - US Navy, SLAR (side-
looking airborne radar) - side-looking aircraft radar, SLAR (side-looking airborne
radar) - side-looking aircraft radar, BOSS (biological orbiting satellite station) -
biological orbital station, etc.;

e) The method of changing the meaning of a term - implies the transfer of

meaning based on the similarity of certain signs of items, objects, phenomena,
actions, properties. Often, the transfer of values is carried out along with borrowing
words from other fields of activity. For example, in Uzbek: занжир тасма
(капалак қурти – танкнинг ҳаракатланувчи қисми), кирпи (сутэмизувчилар
оиласи – кўчма тўсиқ); in English: rappelling (descent from a mountain by a rope
- landing of a descent on a rope from a helicopter), acquisition (acquisition -
detection and notching of a target), etc.

2. Methods of formation of terminology phrases. Multicomponent military

terms in Uzbek and English are formed by joining a word, which denotes a generic
concept, of one or another concretizing signs for obtaining a species concept. Such
terms are actually collapsed definitions, leading these concepts to more general and
at the same time pointing to their specific features concepts [16, p.110-125]. That,
in turn, forms a kind of terminological nests, which are able to cover a large
number of varieties of the designated phenomena. The term phrases are classified
by the number of their constituent components:

- two part.
In Uzbek: ѐнғин мағлубияти, бланк картаси, биологик қурол, оптик

локатор; in English: guerilla war – партизанлар уруши, dragon’s teeth – танкка
қарши тўсиқ, intelligence officer – разведкачи, training area – ўқув
машқларининг асосий майдони, road block – йўлнинг миналаштирилган
ҳудуди, weapon system – ракета мажмуаси, motor vehicle – ҳарбий
автомобиль, автомобиль ҳарбий бўлими, etc.;

- three part
In Uzbek: ҳарбий ҳаракатларни таъминлаш, ўт ѐғдириб хужумга ўтиш,

портлагичнинг нишон датчиги, кузатув мосламасидан турган жойини
аниқлаш, қўшинларни бошқариш органи, зенит орқали бошқариладиган
ракета; in English: laser range finder – лазер орқали масофа ўлчагич, tactical air
command – ҳаво тактик қўмондонлиги, transport helicopter company – вертолѐт


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транспорт воситалари ротаси, medical supply agency – ҳарбий-медицина
буюмлари билан таъминлаш бошқармаси, etc.;

- four part
In Uzbek: сувости кемаларининг жанговар патруллиги, ўт отиш

қуролларининг турлари, танкларни сувостида бошқариш мосламалари,
реактив артиллериянинг жанговар машиналари, ҳаво хужумининг учувчисиз
воситалари, фуқаролар мудофаасининг ҳарбийлашмаган тузилишин; in
English: set your sights on – ўз олдига мақсад қилиб қўймоқ, give up without a
fight – жангсиз таслим бўлиш, ground control interception squadron – денгиз
пиѐда қўшинлари қирувчи самолѐтларининг ердан туриб бошқариш
эскадрильяси, etc.;

- terms-phrases consisting of five or more components
In Uzbek: сувости кемалари ва учар аппаратлар экипажлари ҳаѐтини

таъминловчи тизим, оммавий қирғин қуролларини қўллаш оқибатларини
бартараф қилиш; in English: multiple-integrated laser engagement system – лазер
орқали аниқлашнинг кўптаркибли тизими, dual purpose improved conventional
munition – икки поғонали яхшиланган ўқ-дорилар, in conjunction with a
nuclear detonation – ядро портлашидан сўнг қўшиннинг бевосита
ҳаракатланиши, dropping and pick-up ground – маълумотларни қабул қилиш ва
ташлаш учун майдон, etc.

It should be noted that with a large number of components in terms-phrases,

semantic-syntactic links within the terminological series may be broken [8, p.1-3].
This leads to the disintegration of terms into two or more separate combinations.
To preserve semantic-syntactic links within a combination, separate components
are connected with a hyphen or are separated by a comma. For example, in Uzbek:
десантчиларни тушириш воситаси, десантчиларнинг шиддатли ҳужум
(штурм) ҳаракати (ҳаво ҳужуми (штурми)), душни дезинфекция қилиш
қурилмаси; in English: twin-eyed optical system – оптик дурбин асбоби, eight-
man infantry squad – пиѐда бўлинмаси, landing craft, infantry – эскадра
қўмондонининг десантчилар кемаси, etc.

Thus, military terms are formed in the usual ways of word-formation inherent

in Uzbek and English: morphological and lexico-semantic methods, by borrowing
from other areas of science and technology, from other languages, as well as on the
basis of combining various phrases. Among the main areas of operation of military
terms in Uzbek and English are: a) terms covering the development of new types
of weapons; b) terms related to tactics and military-operational art; c) terms
relating to the reorganization of the troops and the higher authorities. The main


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characteristic of military terms in the English and Uzbek languages, among other
terminological properties, is a special sphere of functioning, which is determined
by a number of signs allowing to refer certain words or phrases to the category of
military terminology.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Averbukh K.Ya. The general theory of the term. - M .: Izdat. MGOU, 2006. -
252 p.
2. Akhmanova O.S. Dictionary of linguistic terms (2nd ed., Stereotype.). - M .:
―Soviet Encyclopedia‖, 1969. - 608 p.
3. Volodina M.N. The term as an element of the system of linguistic expression of
special concepts // Scientific and Technical Terminology, 2001. - Issue 2. - pp. 27-
29.
4. Gorelikova S.N. The nature of the term and some features of term formation in
the English language. Vestnik OGU, 2002. - № 6. - pp. 129-136.
5. Grinev-Grinevich S.V. Terminology // Manual for students of Universities. - M.:
Izdat. The Center ―Academy‖, 2008. - 304 p.
6. Danilenko V.P. Russian terminology: the experience of linguistic description. -
M.: ―Science‖, 1977. - 246 p.
7. Kandelaki, T.L. Semantics and motivation of terms.- M.: ―Science‖,1977.- 167
p.
8. Kayumova D.F., Shaydullina A.I. Linguistic and Cultural Characteristics of the
Military Terminology of Modern English // KGUKI Bulletin, 2017. - 3 p.
9. Kiselev V.B. English-Russian dictionary of military and related vocabulary. -
M.: ―East-West‖, 2005. - 283 p.
10. Kozhanov D.A. New approaches to the definition of the essence of the term in
cognitive-discursive research//World of science, culture, education, 2008. - №5
(12). - pp. 43-47.
11. Lazareva M.A. Comparative analysis of the meteorological vocabulary of
English and Russian languages // Dissertation. ... candidate of philological
sciences. - M., 2000 - 199 p.
12. Leychik V.M. Terminology: subject, methods, structure (4th ed.). - M.:
Librocom, 2009. - 256 p.
13. Manerko L.A. The language of modern technology: the core and the periphery
// Monograph. - Ryazan: RGPU named after S.A. Yesenin, 2000. - 138 p.
14. Plekhov A.M. Dictionary of military terms. - M.: ―Military publishing house‖,
1988. - 335 p.


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European Journal of Business &

Social Sciences

Available at

https://ejbss.org/

ISSN: 2235-767X

Volume 07 Issue 10

July 2019

Available online:

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36

15. Dolimov Sh.Z. Explanatory Dictionary of military terms//Dictionary. - T.:
Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2007. - 394 p.
16. Ryabova E.A. Problems and principles of terminology systematization: on the
material of a comparative analysis of the rocket and space vocabulary of the
English and Russian languages // Dissertation. ... candidate of philological
sciences. - Moscow, 2010. - 208 p.
17. Samigullina A.D. Peculiarities of formation of lexical-semantic field ―Military
uniforms‖ in English and Russian languages. dissertation ... candidate of
philological sciences. - M., 2009. - 22 p.
18. Serebryakova Yu.A. Interaction of national identity and national
culture//Bulletin of BSU, 2012. – 6 p.
19. Strelkovsky G.M. Theory and practice of military translation (German). - M.:
―Military Publishing‖, 1979. - 272 p.
20. Superanskaya A.V. General Terminology: Issues of Theory (3rd ed.). - M.:
URSS, 2004. - 246 p.
21. N. Shansky. Essays on Russian word formation // Manual. - M.: URSS, 2005. -
336 p.
22. Shevchuk V.N. Military Terminology System in Statics and Dynamics//Dis. ...
doctor of philological sciences. - M., 1985. - 488 p.
23. Shcherba L.V. Language system and speech activity. - L.: ―Science‖, 1974. -
427 p.

Библиографические ссылки

Avcrbukh К.Ya. The general theory of the term. - M Izdat. MGOU, 2006. -252 p.

Akhmanova O.S. Dictionary of linguistic terms (2nd ed., Stereotype.). - M .: “Soviet Encyclopedia”, 1969. - 608 p.

Volodina M.N. The term as an element of the system of linguistic expression of special concepts // Scientific and Technical Terminology, 2001. - Issue 2. - pp. 27-29.

Gorelikova S.N. The nature of the term and some features of term formation in the English language. Vcstnik OGU, 2002. - № 6. - pp. 129-136.

Grinev-Grinevich S.V. Terminology // Manual for students of Universities. - M.: Izdat. The Center “Academy”, 2008. - 304 p.

Danilenko V.P. Russian terminology: the experience of linguistic description. -M.: “Science”, 1977.-246 p.

Kandelaki, T.L. Semantics and motivation of terms.- M.: “Science”, 1977,- 167 P

Kayumova D.F., Shaydullina A.I. Linguistic and Cultural Characteristics of the Military Terminology of Modem English // KGUKI Bulletin, 2017. - 3 p.

Kiselev V.B. English-Russian dictionary of military and related vocabulary. -M.: “East-West”, 2005. - 283 p.

Kozhanov D.A. New approaches to the definition of the essence of the term in cognitive-discursive research//World of science, culture, education, 2008. - №5 (12).-pp. 43-47.

Lazareva M.A. Comparative analysis of the meteorological vocabulary of English and Russian languages // Dissertation. ... candidate of philological sciences. - M., 2000 - 199 p.

Leychik V.M. Terminology: subject, methods, structure (4th ed.). - M.: Librocom, 2009. - 256 p.

Manerko L.A. The language of modem technology: the core and the periphery // Monograph. - Ryazan: RGPU named after S.A. Yesenin, 2000. - 138 p.

Plekhov A.M. Dictionary of military terms. - M.: “Military publishing house”, 1988.- 335 p.

Dolimov Sh.Z. Explanatory Dictionary of military termsZZDictionary. - T.: Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2007. - 394 p.

Ryabova E.A. Problems and principles of terminology systematization: on the material of a comparative analysis of the rocket and space vocabulary of the English and Russian languages // Dissertation. ... candidate of philological sciences. - Moscow, 2010. - 208 p.

Samigullina A.D. Peculiarities of formation of lexical-semantic field “Military uniforms” in English and Russian languages, dissertation ... candidate of philological sciences. - M., 2009. - 22 p.

Serebryakova Yu.A. Interaction of national identity and national culture/ZBulletin of BSU, 2012. - 6 p.

Strelkovsky G.M. Theory and practice of military translation (German). - M.: “Military Publishing”, 1979. - 272 p.

Superanskaya A.V. General Terminology: Issues of Theory (3rd ed.). - M.: URSS, 2004. - 246 p.

N. Shansky. Essays on Russian word formation // Manual. - M.: URSS, 2005. -336 p.

Shevchuk V.N. Military Terminology System in Statics and Dynamics/ZDis. ... doctor of philological sciences. - M., 1985. - 488 p.

Shcherba L.V. Language system and speech activity. - L.: “Science”, 1974. -427 p.

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