Необходимость правового регулирования борьбы с киберпреступностью в республике Узбекистан

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Курганов A., & Исаев S. (2022). Необходимость правового регулирования борьбы с киберпреступностью в республике Узбекистан. in Library, 22(1), 410–419. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/12537
Анвар Курганов, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Начальник кафедры узбекского языка и иностранных языков МВД Республики Узбекистан

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Аннотация

В статье излагается значение осуществляемых в Узбекистане коренных реформ, касающихся кибербезопасности, суть и значение таких понятий как кибербезопасность, киберпреступления, компьютерная безопасность, их виды, даётся законодательство Республики Узбекистан в сфере информатизации и кибербезопасности, место Республики Узбекистан в Глобальном индексе кибербезопасности, а ткже пробелы имеющиеся в законодательной практике, связанные с регулированием вопросов ответственности в информационном пространстве и предложения для борьбы с киберпреступностью.

Похожие статьи


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

A.M.Kurganov

IIV Akademiyasi

Tillarni o‘rganish kafedrasi boshlig‘i

dotsent (PhD) podpolkovnik

S.А.Isayev,

IIV Akademiyasi Magistraturasi

Tashkiliy-Strategik Boshqaruv

tinglovchisi, podpolkovni

k

THE NEED FOR LEGAL REGULATION IN COMBAT

WITH CYBERCRIME IN THE REPUBLIC OF

UZBEKISTAN

Annotation.

The article deals with the significance of the fundamental

reforms concerning cybersecurity carried out in Uzbekistan, the essence

and content of the concepts as cybersecurity, cybercrime, computer

security, their types, the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in

the field of informatization and cybersecurity is given, the place of the

Republic of Uzbekistan in the Global Cybersecurity Index, as well as the

gaps existing in legislative practice related to the regulation of issues

of responsibility in the information space and proposals for combating

cybercrime.

Keywords:

cybersecurity, cybercrime, computer security, hacker,

phishing, privacy.

НЕОБХОДИМОСТЬ ПРАВОВОГО РЕГУЛИРОВАНИЯ

БОРЬБЫ С КИБЕРПРЕСТУПНОСТЬЮ В РЕСПУБЛИКЕ

УЗБЕКИСТАН

Аннотация.

В статье излагается значение осуществляемых

в Узбекистане коренных реформ, касающихся кибербезопасности,


background image

24 февраль 2022 йил

411

КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

суть и значение таких понятий как кибербезопасность, киберпре

-

ступления, компьютерная безопасность, их виды, даётся законо

-

дательство Республики Узбекистан в сфере информатизации и

кибербезопасности, место Республики Узбекистан в Глобальном

индексе кибербезопасности, а ткже пробелы имеющиеся в зако

-

нодательной практике, связанные с регулированием вопросов от

-

ветственности в информационном пространстве и предложения

для борьбы с киберпреступностью.

Ключевые слова

: кибербезопасность, киберпреступления,

компьютерная безопасность, хакер, фишинг, конфиденциальность.

ЎЗБЕКИСТОН РЕСПУБЛИКAСИДA

КИБЕРЖИНОЯТЧИЛИККА ҚАРШИ КУРАШИШНИ

ҲУҚУҚИЙ ТAРТИБГА СОЛИШ ЗАРУРИЯТИ

Аннотация.

Мақолада Ўзбекистонда киберхавфсизлик ва ки

-

бержиноятчиликка қарши курашиш соҳасида амалга оширилаёт

-

ган туб ислоҳотларнинг аҳамияти, киберхавфсизлик, кибержи

-

ноят, компьютер хавфсизлиги каби тушунчаларнинг моҳияти ва

мазмуни, уларнинг турлари, Ўзбекистон Республикасининг ахбо

-

ротлаштириш ва киберхавфсизлик соҳасидаги қонун ҳужжат

-

лари, Ўзбекистон Республикасининг Глобал киберхавфсизлик ин

-

дексидаги ўрни, шунингдек, ахборот маконида жавобгарлик маса

-

лаларини тартибга солиш билан боғлиқ қонунчилик амалиётида

мавжуд камчиликлар ва кибержиноятларга қарши курашиш бў-

йича таклифлар баён этилган.

Калит сўзлар:

киберхавфсизлик, кибержиноят, компьютер

хавфсизлиги, хакер, фишинг, махфийлик.

Systematic work was carried out in the field of promotion of human

rights, strengthen the accountability and transparency of state bodies,

increasing the role of civil society institutions, the media, political

activities and public associations as well. The political, legal, socio-

economic, scientific and educational foundations have been created for

building the New Uzbekistan in the country.

As a result, nowadays Uzbekistan occupies the most significant

place on the level of security among the countries of the world. Even


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

experienced foreign diplomats who traveled to many countries recognize

that Uzbekistan is a safe place to live in peace. First of all, it is the

merit of the country’s law enforcement bodies of course, in particular the

internal affairs bodies as well.

The Global Law and Order rating for 2019 confirmed the position of

Uzbekistan as a safe country. In this rating, Uzbekistan took fourth place

along with Switzerland as the safest countries in the world.

A consistent and balanced policy implemented in the Republic of

Uzbekistan in all spheres of society contributes to the active integration

of our country into the international community. The system of providing

state, banking and other services online is being consistently improved

and modernized, which makes it as easy as possible for the population to

receive these services and eliminates the corruption component.

At the same time, special attention is paid to the provision of

Internet and mobile communications services. Unfortunately, in parallel

with this, terms such as “hacker”, “Internet scammer”, “phishing”,

“cybersecurity”, and “cybercrime” are broadly being mentioned in our

everyday life.

The main conclusion of the Global Risk Report released by the

World Economic Forum in 2020, «cybercrime» is listed as one of the

main problems of the 21st century. The main reasons for this are two

contradictory trends:

1) Loss of public trust in the Internet, which is the fifth in terms of

strategic risk;

2) Providing a public good through unmatched technological change.

In this regard, it is advisable to understand what such concepts as

«

computer security

», «

cyber security

» mean.

Computer security is a section of information security that

characterizes the impossibility of causing damage to a computer that

exceeds the amount of acceptable damage to it from all identified and

studied sources of its failures under certain operating conditions and at

a given time interval.

Computer security

is a security measures applied to protect

computing devices (computers, smartphones and others), as well as

computer networks (private and public networks, including the Internet).

The field of activity of system administrators covers all processes


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

and mechanisms by which digital equipment, the information field

and services are protected from accidental or unauthorized access,

modification or destruction of data, and is of increasing importance due to

the growing reliance on computer systems in the developed community.

Cybersecurity

is a section of information security, within which the

processes of formation, functioning and evolution of cyber objects are

studied, in order to identify the sources of cyber danger that are formed

in this case, determine their characteristics, as well as their classification

and the formation of regulatory documents, the implementation of which

should guarantee the protection of cyber objects from all identified and

studied sources of cyber hazard.

Cybersecurity

is the process of using security measures to ensure

the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data. The system

administrator ensures the protection of assets, including data on the

local network of computers and servers. In addition, buildings and, most

importantly, personnel are taken under protection.

The goal of cybersecurity

is to protect data (both in transit and/

or exchange and in storage). Countermeasures may also be applied to

ensure data security. Some of these measures include (but are not limited

to) access control, staff training, auditing and reporting, risk assessment,

penetration testing, and authorization requirements.

World practice in recent years shows that the chances of a successful

investigation of cybercrime is only 0.05%! Meanwhile, the estimated

damage from cybercrime will cost, according to experts, the global

economy $6 trillion as early as 2021. For comparison, this is twice

as much as the criminal world earns from “traditional” crimes: drug

trafficking, prostitution, robberies, arms sales, etc.

While debate continues about the reasons for such a large gap between

the scope of cybercrime and the capacity of law enforcement and law

enforcement structures are mainly disputes about public openness and

national security.

In general, the following

types of cybercrime can be distinguished

as financially oriented (phishing, cyber extortion, carding, skimming,

etc.). For example: citizens filed applications with the police department,

in which they report that an unknown person, using the Telegram

messenger, reports on the results of a competition allegedly held among


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

persons who have contributed money to buy cars, then fraudulently finds

out the details of bank plastic cards as a result, illegally appropriates the

funds available on them (these acts are qualified by part 3 of the article

169 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan);

cybercrimes related to the invasion of privacy or the mercenary use

of personal data of other persons

, by registering his mobile phone in the

national UZIMEI system, a person discovers that an unknown mobile

device has already been registered to his personal passport data (part 2

of the article 1412 and part 2) 2 article 182 of the Criminal Code of the

Republic of Uzbekistan);

cybercrime against public safety and public order

; for example, it

was found that a number of persons are engaged in the dissemination of

materials on the Internet that promote extremism (part 3 of the article

2441 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan).

In this regard, the President of the country set a task for legal

services, in particular the Ministry of Internal Affairs, to prepare drafts

of relevant legislative and other regulatory legal acts. Thus, the Laws of

the Republic of Uzbekistan «About Informatization», «About Electronic

Government», « About the Protection of Information in the Automated

Banking System», Resolution of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy

Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan as of January 26, 2022 No. 1781-

IV “About the Bill of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PL-869 « About

cybersecurity», Decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan

No. DP-4947 as of February 7, 2017 « About the strategy of actions for

the further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan», « About the

development strategy of New Uzbekistan for 2022-2026» as of 01/28/2022

No. UP-60, Decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan No.

PR-4024 as of November 21, 2018 « About measures to improve the

system for monitoring the implementation of information technologies

and communications, organizing their protection» No. PP-4452 as of

September 14, 2019 « About additional measures to improvement of the

system of control over the introduction of information technologies and

communications, organization of their protection».

Thus, Uzbekistan, according to the data of October 12, 2021, «Global

Cybersecurity Index» took 70th place in the rating of countries in terms of

cybersecurity. This Global Cybersecurity Index combines 82 questions in


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

five main areas, each of which is awarded 20 points. When compiling the

rating, the following indicators are taken into account: legal, technical

and organizational measures, and criteria for capacity development and

cooperation. In the segment of legal measures, Uzbekistan received

19.27 points, in terms of capacity development - 15.68 points, in terms

of cooperation - 13.56 points, in technical measures - 12.56 points and in

organizational - 10.05 points. The overall final result was 71.11 points.

Among the countries of Central Asia, the Republic took second place,

losing only to Kazakhstan.

In addition, the National Cybersecurity Strategy for 2020-2023 was

developed, which includes regulating the fight against crime in the

national cyberspace, the formation of a unified cybersecurity system and

a legal framework in the field of protecting critical infrastructure from

cyber attacks strengthening cyber security measures in the country.

Adoption of the bill «About Cyber Security» is expected, which will

include mechanisms for protecting information and communication

technologies from modern cyber threats, the rights of state bodies,

enterprises and organizations in the field of cyber security and define

their responsibilities in this area.

President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev noted «returning

the trust of the people» as the main task of the entire reform of the

internal affairs bodies of the country. With this slogan, the head of state

acknowledged that over the past years, the population has accumulated

a lot of negativity towards the law enforcement agencies of the country.

Among these ongoing reforms, a special place deserves the

improvement of the rule-making process, increasing the level of

professional training of officers of legal services, strengthening their role

and responsibility for the high quality of legal support for the activities

of internal affairs bodies.

Within the framework of the Decree of the President «About the

Development Strategy of New Uzbekistan for 2022-2026» adopted

on January 28, 2022 No. DP-60, which approved the Development

Strategy developed as a result of a wide public discussion based on the

principle “From the Action Strategy to the Development Strategy” New

Uzbekistan for 2022-2026 and the State Program for its implementation

in the «Year of Promotion of Human Interests and Development of


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

Mahalla», provides for the implementation of measures, in particular,

improving the practice of consulting with civil society institutions in

the legislative process, developing and expanding the assessment of

the regulatory impact of acts legislation as part of the application of

elements of the “smart regulation” model in order to ensure the stability,

quality and effectiveness of the legal regulation of public relations,

reviewing the requirements for modern technologies and digital

activities in the framework of increasing the competitiveness of the

legal system and mobilizing new drivers of the economy, reduction of

legislative acts in the framework of reducing the “regulatory burden” in

industries, systematization of legal acts regulating the activities of state

bodies, development of a concept for the development of legislation

of the Republic of Uzbekistan, reduction of the circle of state bodies

with the authority to adopt departmental normative legal acts, as well as

continuation of work on optimizing the number of these acts in order to

create and ensure a safe space in the country.

At the same time, in our opinion, there are still certain gaps in

legislative practice related to the regulation of liability issues in the

information space.

In this regard, it is proposed that it is advisable to take the following

measures to build global immunity to combat cybercrime:

firstly

, it is the development, review and coordination of information

security policy; consulting assistance to state and economic bodies on

organizational and technical issues of ensuring information and cyber

security; providing state and economic bodies with regulations in the

field of ensuring information and cyber security (regulatory support);

holding seminars and trainings on ensuring information and cyber

security; coordination of annual action plans to ensure information and

cyber security of state and economic bodies and coordination of their

implementation;

secondly

, cooperation is needed at the transnational, national and

corporate levels. Here we are talking about such a problem as the

inability to conduct investigations on a cyber-transnational scale, as is

done, for example, by Interpol or foreign intelligence agencies in relation

to «traditional» criminals and crimes;

thirdly

, it is necessary to attract and exchange experience with foreign


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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

experts, that is, to exchange and share their achievements and practices in

order to raise the general level of law enforcement structures, especially

in those countries that become the main victims and at the same time

important nodes of organized cybercrime;

fourthly

, it is necessary to introduce the practice of public-private

partnership. Since, cybercrime is not only in the area of responsibility of

law enforcement agencies. Every victim of cybercrime is a data owner,

whether in the public or private sector, which is part of an interconnected

and interdependent global ecosystem, and today the potential to fight

with organized cybercrime is in the hands of corporate structures.

Promoting data sharing and collaboration, as well as defining clear roles

and guidelines for leveraging each other’s strengths, can help build a

united front in the fight against crime in this area;

fifthly

, it is advisable to study and implement the best practices of some

foreign countries where cybersecurity is taught from the school bench. For

example, in the UK, schoolchildren are proposed cybersecurity lessons,

in which they learn the skills to ensure the safety of British companies

and organizations from network attacks by hackers. The curriculum is

developed by the UK Ministry of Culture, Media and Sport. Lessons are

implemented both online and in the form of extracurricular activities,

which take place four times a week and are conducted by expert teachers.

With students, real cybersecurity problems and the practice of solving

them are considered. The program is aimed at students aged 14 to 18.

Classes have been held since September 2017.

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22, 1994 // National Legislation Database, as of February 16, 2022, No.

03/22/754/0134.

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КИБЕРМАКОНДА СОДИР ЭТИЛАЁТГАН ЖИНОЯТЛАРГА ҚАРШИ КУРАШ: МУАММОЛАР ВА ЕЧИМЛАР

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Библиографические ссылки

Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated September 22, 1994 // National Legislation Database, as of February 16, 2022, No. 03/22/754/0134.

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of December 11, 2003, No. 560-11 «About Informatization»// National Legislation Database, as of March 30, 2021, No. 03/21/679/0256.

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of 04.04.2006 No. LRU-30 «About the protection of information in the automated banking system»// Collected Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2006, No. 14, Art. 112.

Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of09.12.2015 No. LRU-395 «About Electron Government»// Collected Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan, 2015, No. 49, art. 611.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of January 28, 2022 No. UP-60// National Legislation Database, January 29, 2022 No. 06/22/60/0082.

Decree of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of January 26,2022, No. 1781-IV «About the Bill of the Republic of Uzbekistan No. PZ-869 «About Cybersecurity»// https://lex.uz/docs./5860338.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of February 7, 2017 No. DP-947 «About the strategy of actions for the further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan»//National database of legislation, 05/01/2021, No. 06/21/6217/0409.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of January 28, 2022 No. DP-60 «About the Development Strategy of New Uzbekistan for 2022-2026»//National database of legislation, 01/29/2022, No. 06/22/60/0082.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of November 21, 2018 No. PP-4024 «About measures to improve the system of control over the introduction of information technologies and communications, the organization of their protection»// National database of legislation, 22.11.2018, No. 07/18/4024/2200; 06/29/2021, No. 06/21/6252/0617.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as of September 14,2019 No. PP-4452 "About additional measures to improve the system of control over the introduction of information technologies and communications, the organization of their protection”// National database of legislation, 16.09.2019, No. 07/19/4452/4207.

Cybersecurity rating: Uzbekistan entered the top 70 countries// https://uz.sputniknews.ru.

Uzbekistan thinks about cybersecurity.//https://www.gazeta.uz.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan as of January 28, 2022 No. DP-60 «About the Development Strategy of New Uzbekistan for 2022-2026»//National Legislation Database, January 29, 2022, No. 06/22/60/0082.

Reform of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Uzbekistan: will expectations come true?// cabar.asia/ru.

Fighting cybercrime - what happens to the law when the law can’t be enforced?// https://tace.uz.

«Reliance spells end of road for ICT amateurs», as of May 07, 2013, The Australian.//https://ru. wikipedia.org.

https://ru.wikipedia.org.

Cybersecurity: Understanding the Online Threat// https:// ru.wikipedia.org.

Fighting cybercrime - what happens to the law when the law can’t be enforced?// https://tace.uz.

Cyber Security vs Cyber Crime//https://iiv.uz.

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