Стилистические особенности военных терминов в английском и узбекском языках

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Kurganov А. (2022). Стилистические особенности военных терминов в английском и узбекском языках. in Library, 22(1), 641–645. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/12238
Anvar Kurganov, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Заместитель начальника Управления языковых исследований МВД Республики Узбекистан

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Аннотация

В статье рассматриваются стилистические особенности военных терминов в английском и узбекском языках. Поскольку мир быстро растет, технологии и терминология во всей области также растут одновременно. Здесь, в этой статье, мы обсудили некоторые изменения в военной терминологии английского и узбекского языков.

Похожие статьи


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EMJ

C

EUROPEAN MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL OF MODERN SCIENCE

https://emjms.academicjournal.io/index.php/ Volume: 4



20XX

European Multidisciplinary Journal of

Modern Science

MS

641

Stylistic Features of Military Terms in English and Uzbek

Languages

Anvar Mukhtorovich Kurganov

Doctor of philology (PhD), docent

Abstract

: The article deals with the stylistic features of military terms in English and Uzbek

languages. As the world is growing rapidly, the technology and terminology of the entire field is also
growing at the same time. Here in this article, we have discussed some of the changes in the military
terminology of English and Uzbek languages.

Keywords

: military terms, general scientific vocabulary, terminological phrases, armed forces,

technical concepts, military business texts, military-technical texts, military environment.

Military terms are considered to be one of the stylistically neutral and emotionally neutral
lexical units and have their own characteristics [1]. It should be noted that in addition to pure
terms that tend to have the same meaning, military terms also include some lexical units that
have stylistic coloration. They are mostly neutral in terms of the biblical coloration of lexical
units.Admittedly, emotive-expressive, emotionally-colored lexical units in the military field
do not represent the full self of neutral lexical units.Therefore, although methodological
painting in the military field implies an emotive-expressive attitude to the concept expressed
by term-lexemes, the feature of methodological painting is somewhat “weak” in relation to
the language units that are in common use.As an example, it is appropriate to cite the
following military lexical units. For example:

push-button war

- “кнопкали уруш”;

trigger-happy

- “фарқламай ўқ узиш”;

slick ship

- “қуролланган вертолёт” [2.].

The English lexeme

Provost

[3.] is common today in literary English and its dialects, in

many literatures, dictionaries, and even in the process of live communication, and it has a
connotative character in a certain sense not only in the above sense but also in the plural.

The historical evolution of the term “

Provost

”can be explained as follows: Old English

profost

, from Medieval Latin prōpositus placed at the head (of), from Latin praepōnere to

place first, from prae- before + pōnere to put. Оbsolete a

prison warder

[prə'vəʊ] and Brit

and Canadian

military a military policeman

[4.].

An example sentence is a syntactically composed of two or more phrases used in oral and
written discourse (

provost guard

– махсус хизмат вазифаларини бажарувчи

кишилар,

provost court

– ҳарбий суд,

provost prison

– ҳарбий қамоқхона,

provost corps

ҳарбий жандарма,

constabulary provost marshal

– ҳарбий полиция бошлиғи)

.

In fact, the term

Provost

has the following meanings in English.

Provost

1)

ҳарбий

полиция, миршаб;

2)

ҳарбий бошлиқ, командир (горнизон бошлиғи)

; 3)

бош руҳоний

; 4)

ўқув юрти бошлиғи (мактаб ва коллежда)

; 5)

ректор (Англияда), проректор (АҚШда);

6)

мэр (Шотландияда

); 7)

провост, декан (Канадада);

8)

корпорация раиси

and others.

Let us consider the use of this term in the text.

The

provost

– marshal and his men tore us apart when last we met.

Ҳарбий полиция


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бошлиғи

ва унинг одамлари бизнинг сўнгги учрашувимизда ажратиб юборишди.

...

аnd most

Provost

Marshals are colonels themselves.

Аксарият

ҳарбий полиция

бошлиқлари полковникдир.

I lodge [up] two pair of stairs, have but one room, and deny myself to everydiv almost, yet I
cannot be quiet and all my mornings are lost with people, who will not take answers below
stairs, such as Dilly, and the Bishop, and

Provost,

etc –

Мен ҳозир иккинчи қаватда, бир

хонали квартирада яшайман ва деярли ҳеч кимни қабул қилмайман, ваҳоланки, менинг
хизматкорларимнинг рад жавобига эътибор бермаган Дилли,

архиерей, ректор

каби

бошқа кишилар сабабли эрталабки вақтим беҳуда ўтиб, ҳаловатим бузилмоқда

[5.166]

.

From the above given examples, it can be seen that while several meanings of the term

Provost

in the military field have semantic dominance, connotative features have played an

important role in mastering the meaning of the term

“черковнинг бош руҳонийси”

.

In linguistics, there are similarities and differences in the use of language tools learned
through different languages [6.]. One of such language tools is slang words, which can be
found in English and Uzbek in simple and artificial forms. For example:

1.

Structures consisting of individual morphemes.

In English

: buzz –

янгиликлар;

skive

туширмоқ

.

In Uzbek

: language –

ҳарбий асир

.

2.

Artificial structural jargon:

a) prefix:

unhook

– қарзга пул олмоқ;

b) complex construction:

boneyard

ҳарбийлар қабристони;

одам-амфибия

ҳарбий

қисмда идиш-товоқ ювувчи;

c) two-component jargons:

all smart

ҳаммаси жойида; уйқудаги гўзал – навбатчи

соқчи

.

English military terminology is also rich in metaphors in a sense [7.]. An example of this is a
dictionary of military terms published by Macmillan Publishing:

bloodbath

(a massacre, the killing of large numbers of people) –

сўзма-сўз

таржимаси“қонли ҳаммом”, ҳарбий маънода “

оммавий қирғин”;

buddy-buddysystem

(aphilosophywherecomradeslookaftereachother'swelfareandprotecteachotherinbattle)

жанг майдонида ҳарбий хизматчиларнинг бир-бирига ёрдам кўрсатиши, қўллаб-
қувватлашини

назарда

тутувчи

ўзаро

муносабат

тизими.

Сўзма-

сўзтаржимаси“биродар-биродар тизими”;

bloodbath

(a massacre, the killing of large numbers of people)–

сўзма-сўз

таржимаси“қонли ҳаммом”, ҳарбий маънода “

оммавий қирғин”;

buddy-buddy system

(a philosophy where soldiers look after each other's welfare and

protect each other in battle)

жангмайдонидаҳарбийхизматчиларнингбир-

биригаѐрдамкўрсатиши,

қўллаб-

қувватлашининазардатутувчиўзаромуносабаттизими.

Сўзма-

сўзтаржимаси

“биродар-биродартизими”;

chopper

(ahelicopter) –

word for word translation is

“чопиш, кесиш учун мослама”

бўлса, ҳарбий соҳада “вертолѐт” маъносини англатади;

dogfight

(abattlebetweenaircraft) –

word for word translation is

“итлар уриши”,

маъносини англатса, ҳарбий лексикада “ҳаво жанги” ифодалаб келади;


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dragon’steeth

(concretepillarsusedasanobstaclefortanks) –

word for word translation

is

“аждаҳо тишлари”, ҳарбий маъноси эса “танкка қарши тўсқинлик”;

caterpillar steel track

– гусеницали пўлат лента;

booby-trap

“тузоқли-мина”;

dropzone

–“парашют десанти қўниш зонаси” каби маънолари мавжуд

[8.].

The system of military terms is an unproven axiom that also includes stylistic synonyms
consisting of stylistic synonyms [9.83-99.]. For example, in English, the original lexical
meaning of the words

doughboy

and

infantryman

is

“узма, пилак, пилак ош”

, which has

become a jargon as a result of stylistic painting. Note the following English sentence:

During World War I, she dressed as a

doughboy

in olive drab.

– Биринчи жаҳон урушида у

худди

пиёда аскарга

ўхшаб кийиниб олган эди.

The constant changes and shifts in the semantics of military terms or the acquisition of
connotative features in the transfer of meaning are explained by the fact that military
vocabulary is not fixed in one place, but constantly accelerates to the point of development
and perfection. In the course of the research, we were convinced that the emergence of such
military terms may be vary:

a)

а) terminology (often based on metaphor):

shaped charge

кумулятив заряд

;

high

explosive

– кучли портловчи

;

close

яқинлашмоқ

;

yaw

–изғиб юрмоқ

, if it is about a

ship

ҳар томонга бурилиб сузмоқ;

the word

thrust

does not intend the word

туртки

,

but

тортишиш кучи

; the word

pod

does not intend the word

пўчоқ

, but

транспортни

ишга тушириш контейнери

; the word

rack

does not intend the word

тўр

, but

бомба

тутқич

; the word

bay

exactly intends for

бомба бўлмаси

;

b)

Re-terminating (reterminating) - the use of a term in one area in full or in part by copying
it to another area and vice versa, using it in the previous field by reusing it. For example:

pocket, jack

and ets.

c)

Assimilation and calcification:

sputnik

,

сканер

,

плоттер

;

d)

creating a term using a root morpheme of the national language, a word stem, or
international words. For example:

range finder

–масофа ўлчагич

;

altimeter

–баландлик

ўлчагич

;

early warning

–масофали огоҳлантириш

;

reentry vehicles

–ҳарбий қисмлар;

military alliance

– ҳарбий иттифоқ;

military adviser

– ҳарбий маслаҳатчи

and ets

.

According to the given examples, the main thematic directions of the fund of military
terminology in modern English and Uzbek languages can be divided and classified as follows
[10.11-18.].

terms covering the field of production of new weapons.

In Uzbek:

радиоактив снаряд,

замонавий ракета-мосламалари; минтақалараро баллистик ракета.

In English:

wire-guarded missile –

бошқариладиган ракета,

laser range finder –

лазерли

дальномер(масофа ўлчагич),

rocket-assisted projectile –

реактив снаряд

and others.

terms related to the change of fundamentally important rules specific to tactics and
martial arts.

In Uzbek:

қўшинларни ҳаво орқали (авиацион) кузатиб бориш, ядровий

қуроллар, ҳаво-космик кемалар мудофааси.

In English:

electronic countermeasures –

“электрон қарши чоралар”, embargo – “блокада”, “тақиқ”, guerilla war – “партизан
уруши”;

military terms related to the reorganization of the composition of the ground forces and
senior command.

In Uzbek:

акустик база, ҳарбий инфратузилма, кузатув (назорат)


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журнали.

In English:

logistics operations center – “фронт ортини бошқариш маркази”,

besiege – “қамал қилиш”, “қуршаб олиш”, bivouac – “тунаш”, “қўниш”, “тўхташ
жойи”;

Today, English military terminology has a consistent development trend, in parallel with the
development of new types of modern weapons. However, special lexicons created in the field
of linguistics do not “catch up” with this process.This, in its turn, shows that it is expedient to
revitalize the practical work being done in the field of terminology;

Military terms related to missile-nuclear and space combat systems include:

In

English:

orbital weapon –

“орбитал қурол”;

global missile –

“глобал ракета”;

silo

launcher

“шахтали

ишга

тушириш

иншооти”;

stratospheric

fallout

“стратосферани ядровий портлаш радиоактив моддалар билан заҳарлаш”,
радиоэлектрон ва бошқа техник воситалар;

beam rider guidance –

“нур орқали

бошқариш”;

laser range finder–

“лазерли масофа ўлчагич”;

ambush detection device –

“пистирмани аниқлашнинг (техник) воситаси”;

air cushion vehicle –

“ҳаво

ѐстиқчасидаги аппарат”;

It is expedient to include the following in the list of terms related to military aviation
terminology in English.

In English:

continuous airborne alert –

“ҳавода узлуксиз жанговар навбатчилик”;

radar

picket

aircraft

“радиолокацион

кузатув

самолѐти”;

gunship–

“қуролланган

вертолѐт”;

copter-borne –

“вертолѐтда ташиладиган”;

aviation battalion –

“авиация

батальони; армия авиацияси батальони”;

helilift –

“вертолѐт орқали (ҳарбийларни)

ташлаш”

and others.

The following new terms have recently emerged due to the restructuring of the land forces
and the reorganization of the supreme governing bodies.

In English:

strike command –

“зарба берувчи қўмондонлик”;

field army support command –

“армия орти

қўмондонлиги”;

division base–

“дивизия, дивизия базасининг умумий ташкилий

элементлари”;

logistics

operations

center

“мамлакат ичкарисини бошқариш

маркази”

and others.

The following new military terms have appeared in English and Uzbek in connection with the
introduction of amendments and additions to some important regulations in the art of tactics
and

operativeness.

In

English:

аrea defense –“

ҳудуд мудофааси; позицион

мудофаа”;

forward edge of the battle area–

“мудофаа ҳудудининг олд томони”;

nuclear

safety line –

“ядровий хавфсизлик чегараси”;

spoiling attack –

“огоҳлантирувчи

зарба”;олд томонга чиқиш контратакаси (қарши ҳужуми)”;

nuclear environment –

“ядровий қуролдан фойдаланиш шарти”

and other terms.

There are also many military terms in the languages being compared that describe wars
waged by unusual means and methods.Terms related to various issues of Uzbekistan’s
military strategy play an important role in this. For example:

қўрқитиш кучининг тенглиги

“balance of terror”;

ѐпирилган жавоб зарбаси, ѐпирилган қарши зарба

–“massive

retaliation”;

маҳаллий уруш, локал уруш; маҳаллий аҳамиятга эга ҳарбий ҳаракатлар

“brush fire war”;

тез жавоб қайтариш стратегияси

–“quick-response strategy”such as

multi-component are actively used in practice in Uzbek military terminology.

It should be noted that a number of new military terms have emerged as a result of the US
aggression against Vietnam. For example: enclave –

“қирғоқ плацдарми”, “таянч пункти”

(ҳарбий операция майдони);

strategic hamlet –

“стратегик қишлоқ” (мустаҳкамланган

аҳоли пункти);

jungle canopy platform –

“чакалакзорлардаги дарахт шох-шаббаларига

вертолѐтлар учун қўниш майдончаси”

and ets.


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There is a significant difference between the U.S. version of the English literary language and
the units used in the military terminology of the British literary English.One of the main
reasons for this is, first of all, the fact that these countries have their own defense systems,
armed forces organizations, weapons, and specific aspects of military tactics.Another
distinctive feature is that one of them is a variant of the literary language, while the other is a
people who speak English literary (biblical) language.Consequently, such diversity is one of
the unresolved issues in military terminology, despite efforts to unify terms during military
tactical and operational exercises within NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization).We
can give them the following terms as an example. The term “merger” is used in the United
States to refer to the term “large unit” and in the United Kingdom to refer to “formation”. The
term “general staff” has two meanings in two countries. In the United States, it means
“general staff”, and in the United Kingdom, it means “operational intelligence”.

Admittedly, in fact, military texts are distinguished by their formal and scholarly style.Their
important methodological feature is the logic, consistency of expression, determined by the
need to introduce and further popularize the theoretical and practical results of scientific
research conducted in various fields of military science.Another important stylistic feature is
the expressiveness of the expression, which is determined not by accountability, but by the
content of the statement, which is achieved through determination, punctuality, professional
tactical schemes, effective use of means of organizational structures of military units.

References

1.

http://zw-observer.narod.ru/slovar/emotion.html

2.

Бубнов И. А. Военная топография: Учеб.пособие / И.А. Бубнов, А.К. Калинин. C.
195. – М.: 1985.

3.

Provostтермининингталаффузиваэтимологикдеривациясиқуйидагича:

['Prɔvəst]

брит, [prɒ̱vəst, pro͟ʊvoʊst] [ˈprɒvəst] амер. Derivatives: provostship, (pro•vost•ship)

noun Origin: late Old English profost “head of a chapter, prior”, reinforced in Middle
English by Anglo-Norman French provost, from medieval Latin propositus, synonym of
Latin praepositus “head, chief” (see: praepostor).

4.

ABBY Lingvo x5. 2010.

5.

Ахмедов

О.С.

Инглизваўзбектилларидасолиқ-

божхонатерминларининглингвистиктаҳлиливатаржимамуаммолари.

Дисс…

фил.фан. док. – Т.: 2016. – Б. 166.

6.

Partridge E.A. Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English [Text] / E.A. Partridge. –
L., 1979.

7.

Телия В.Н. Метафора в языке и тексте. – М.: 1988.

8.

Campaign Dictionary of Military Terms. Macmillan, 2004.

9.

Рябова Е.А. Проблемы и принципы систематизации терминологии: на материале
сопоставительного анализа ракетно-космической лексики английского и русского
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Самигуллина А.Д. Особенности становления лексико-семантического поля
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филол. наук. – М.:, 2009. – С. 11-18.

Библиографические ссылки

http://zw-obscrvcr.narod.ru/slovar/cmotion.html

Бубнов И. А. Военная топография: Учеб.пособие / И.А. Бубнов, А.К. Калинин. С. 195.-М.: 1985.

Ргоуо81тсрмининингталаффузиваэтимологикдсривациясикуйидагича: ['Provost]

брит, [provost, proovoost] [ provost] амер. Derivatives: provostship, (pro«vost’ship) noun Origin: late Old English profost “head of a chapter, prior”, reinforced in Middle English by Anglo-Norman French provost, from medieval Latin propositus, synonym of Latin praepositus “head, chief’ (sec: praepostor). ABBY Lingvo x5. 2010.

Ахмедов O.C. Инглизваузбсктилларидасолик-божхонатсрминларининглингвистиктахлиливатаржимамуаммолари. Диес... фил.фан. док. - Т.: 2016. - Б. 166.

Partridge Е.А. Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English [Text] / E.A. Partridge. -L„ 1979.

Телия B.H. Метафора в языке и тексте. - М.: 1988.

Campaign Dictionary of Military Terms. Macmillan, 2004.

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