Лингвокультурологические и семантические особенности военно-технической лексики в текстах

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Kurganov А. (2019). Лингвокультурологические и семантические особенности военно-технической лексики в текстах. in Library, 19(1), 7–16. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/12247
Anvar Kurganov, Академия МВД Республики Узбекистан

Начальник кафедры узбекского языка и иностранных языков МВД Республики Узбекистан

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Аннотация

В данной статье рассматриваются лингвокультурологические и семантические особенности военно-технической лексики в текстах. Поскольку мир быстро растет, технологии и терминология всей сферы также растут одновременно. В этой статье обсуждаются некоторые изменения в военной терминологической базе английского языка.

Похожие статьи


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ТИЛ НАЗАРИЯСИ

СИНХРОН ВА ДИАХРОН ТИЛШУНОСЛИК

УДК 81'276.6:355

THE LINGUACULTUROLOGICAL AND SEMANTIC PECULIARITIES OF

MILITARY-TECHNICAL VOCABULARY IN TEXTS

Anvar Mukhtorovich KURGANOV

Deputy Chief of the Languages learning

Department of the Academy of the

Ministry of Internal Affairs of the

Republic of Uzbekistan

Тashkent, Uzbekistan

anvarjon74_74@mail.ru

+99897 700 54 10

Abstract

This article deals with the linguacultural and semantic peculiarities of military-technical

vocabulary in texts. As the world is growing rapidly the technology and terminology of all sphere
also growing at the same time. Here in this article we discussed some changes in military
terminological base of English language.

Keywords:

military terms; general scientific vocabulary; terminological phrases; armed forces;

technical concepts; military business texts; military-technical texts; military environment.

ИНГЛИЗ ТИЛИДАГИ МАТНЛАРДА ҲАРБИЙ-ТEХНИК ЛEКСИКАНИНГ

ЛИНГВОКУЛТУРОЛОГИК ВА СEМАНТИК ХУСУСИЯТЛАРИ

Анвар Мухторович КУРГАНОВ

Тилларни ўрганиш

кафедраси бошлиғи ўринбосари

Ўзбекистон Республикаси ИИВ Академияси

Тошкент, Ўзбекистон

anvarjon74_74@mail.ru

Аннотация

Ушбу мақолада ҳарбий техника луғатининг лингвомаданий ва семантик хусусиятлари

ўрганилган. Дунё жадал суратда ўзгаришлар ичида ўсиб бормоқда ва у билан бир пайтда барча

соҳалардаги технологиялар ҳамда уларга тааллуқли терминлар ҳам ўзгармоқда. Мазкур

мақолада инглиз тилининг ҳарбий терминлар базасида содир бўлаётган ана шу ўзгаришлар

кўриб чиқилди.

Калит сўзлар:

ҳарбий терминлар; умумий илмий сўзлар; терминлар; қуролли кучлар;

техник тушунчалар; ҳарбий бизнес матнлари; ҳарбий техника матнлари; ҳарбий муҳит.



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ЛИНГВОКУЛЬТУРОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ И СЕМАНТИЧЕСКИЕ ОСОБЕННОСТИ

ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛЕКСИКИ В ТЕКСТАХ

Анвар

Мухторович

КУРГАНОВ

Заместитель начальника кафедры

изучения языков

Академия Министерства внутренних дел

Республики Узбекистан

Ташкент, Узбекистан

anvarjon74_74@mail.ru

Аннотация

В данной статье рассматриваются лингвокультурологические и семантические

особенности военно-технической лексики в текстах. Поскольку мир быстро растет,

технологии и терминология всей сферы также растут одновременно. В этой статье

обсуждаются некоторые изменения в военной терминологической базе английского языка.

Ключевые слова:

военные термины; общие научные слова; терминологические фразы;

вооруженные силы; технические концепции; военные деловые тексты; военно-технические

тексты; военная среда.

In connection with the continuous development in the field of military technology,

the emergence of new terms and terminological phrases is becoming increasingly
important. According to S.A. Pavlova, terminological, as well as general scientific
vocabulary as a means of expressing, storing and transmitting information about
special scientific and technical concepts develops “in direct proportion to the level of
development of science and technology” (4, 378).

Texts of military subjects also contribute to “creating the image of the armed

forces within the country and abroad” (3, 123).

According to G.M. Strelkovsky, all military texts, both written and oral, constitute

a group of texts of the same functional style – the style of military speech. In terms of
their functional purpose and content, two types of military texts are distinguished:
informational and regulatory. Informational texts include military-scientific, military-
technical, military-informational and military-publicist types of texts. Regulatory types
of text intended to regulate the life and activities of troops include charters, manuals,
and military business texts (6, 272).

During the 90s of the 20

st

and the beginning of the 21

st

centuries, there is an

increasing interest of cultural linguists, lexicographers, specialists in other spheres of
national linguistics to the problems of social dialectology and, in particular, to military
vocabulary. This is partly due to the penetration of the lexemes of the language of
soldiers-conscripts into the national speech, as well as the influence of the language of
modern youth, social classes and criminal elements on the language of soldiers serving

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in the army and navy. This does not mean that military vocabulary has not been
previously studied. Anyway, this research was connected with the study of the
linguoculture of complete or limited freedom.

To a certain extent, the study of military vocabulary took place in parallel with

the study of the language of declassed elements. This refers to the works of V.I. Dahl,
C. V. Maximov, I. A. Baudouin de Courtenay, B. A. Larin, D. S. Likhachev, V. M.
Zhirmunsky, V. A. Tonkov, L. I. Skvortsov etc. The military vocabulary was also
reflected in the works of such writers, as L. Tolstoy, M. Sholokhov, V. Bykov, A.
Solzhenitsyn and many others. Such a thematic eclecticism is fully justified. Based on
the official ideology, a soldier is always a defender of the Fatherland, a respected figure
in the people. At the same time, traditionally, always in the military service of “lower
ranks” was compulsory, and its conditions resembled the life and culture of corrective
labor institutions, penal servitude, prisons, and camps. Even now, in the conditions of
democratization, we are dealing with a relic of the linguistic culture of non-freedom –
an obligatory term service, the conditions of which are in many respects similar to
modern correctional labor institutions. Accordingly, a typological similarity of cultural
and linguistic processes in the army and the criminal world arises, and the tendency to
interpenetration of these two spheres of social life is manifested. One can even say that
without knowledge of the linguistic culture of declassed elements, the linguistic culture
of the social base (from which the call for military service nowadays mainly takes
place, where the cadets of military schools are replenished) it is impossible to
understand the processes occurring in the language and culture of the modern army.

However, with all the significant results and successes in the study of military

vocabulary, modern linguistic culturology does not have acceptable characteristics of
this social dialect. Perhaps this is due to inconsistency and significant temporary gaps
in the study of military terminology.

From a purely linguistic point of view, the relevance of the study lies in the fact

that the origin of military vocabulary has not yet been established; early (11

st

18

th

centuries) slangisms have not been studied, the lexical composition of the language

of soldiers has not been investigated for its sources.

There are a number of controversial issues related to word production within the

framework of the linguistic culture of non-freedom. The identification of the main and
specific methods and techniques of word formation, meanwhile, makes it possible to
compare military terms with the national language, to clarify the nature of its
vocabulary. The features of phonetics, syntax, text formation in the linguistic culture
of non-freedom were not investigated. No less relevant at present is the characteristic

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of the basic functions of military terms in the military environment and its elements in
various jargons and youth slangs.

Studying, through military terms, the worldview of conscripted soldiers helps fill

in the gaps and correct inaccuracies in research on various aspects of the life of a given
society, which, in turn, is relevant both from the point of view of how to manage the
soldier’s collective from the side of the army personnel and from adaptation of
demobilized soldiers to civilian life.

The novelty of the research lies in the fact that in this article an attempt was made

for the first time to make a systematic linguistic-cultural research of military terms. In
the process of work, not only a wide factual material was collected, but also the extra
linguistic conditions of the origin, existence and development of military terms were
studied. Military terms is considered from systemological, grammatical and cultural
studies points of view. An attempt was made to study the functioning of military terms
in various systems of the national language, and identified the main directions of the
language policy of the state and the officer corps of the army in relation to the language
of soldiers.

Learning the language of the soldiers began in the middle of the 19

th

century.

During this period, factual material was mainly collected, which was included in
various dictionaries of jargon and argo, etc. At the same time, fragmentary attempts
were made to describe military terms (for example, the works of I. A. Baudouin de
Courtenay, S. V. Maximov, and P. P. Ilin).

From the second half of the 30s to the mid 80s of the 20

th

century, the study of

military terms virtually ceased. The collection of factual material presented a certain
difficulty, as the linguist encountered unusual informants who, for reasons of their own
safety, gave knowingly false information, or did not go at all to contact with the
collector.

In the linguistic culturology of the 90s of the 20

th

century, little attention was also

paid to military terminology, the reason for which can be seen in the complex tasks
that linguoculturology faced during this period. In the 90s V.V. Vinogradov studied in
connection with the creation of an electronic version of the “Dictionary of modern
youth slang” by a team of authors. However, there were no special marks that referred
a specific lexeme to the category of military terms. In the 90s, a lot of profanity
glossaries were published, which included military terminology. A distinctive feature
of these glossaries was their weak scientific character, the incompatibility of the
modern lexicographic tradition.

In our study, we turn to military-technical texts containing a description of various

devices of military equipment and weapons and manuals for their operation.

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In the study of military-technical text is also important external compositional

structure, which includes the heading, section subheadings, the sections themselves,
introductory paragraphs. The main linguistic means of military-technical texts are the
presence of military-technical terminology, impersonality of statements, conciseness,
clarity and concreteness of formulations, accuracy and clarity of presentation, clear
separation of one thought from another, ease of perception of information due to the
presence of drawings, lack of expressiveness of the statement.

Military terminology also includes words and phrases that do not denote military

concepts, but are used exclusively in the military environment. D. A. Maslov identifies
characteristics of military terminology that distinguish it from common words and
terms from other areas:

1) the correlation of military terminology units with the concepts of military

science and military affairs;

2) functioning in the military environment;
3) the fixedness of the connection of the term with the concept in the military

documentation;

4) the regulation of definitions (2, 154).

The military vocabulary includes, above all the words and combinations denoting

military concepts, i.e., concepts directly related to the armed forces, military affairs,
war, etc. In addition, the military vocabulary should include scientific and technical
terms used in connection with military concepts (for example,

track

tank track or any

combat vehicle, on a track”

).

Further, military vocabulary may include words and combinations that, although

they do not denote military concepts proper, are used almost exclusively in a military
environment, but are generally unknown or completely unknown (for example

,

boondocks “jungle”; behavior report

letter (soldier) home”; side arms “tableware”),

as well as some foreign borrowing, various jargon, etc.

Thus, military vocabulary includes both words and combinations expressing

specific military concepts, as well as words and combinations commonly used in the
armed forces.

Military vocabulary in English can be divided into the following two groups:
1. Military terminology.
Military terminology in its turn is divided:
a) on official terminology consisting of statutory terms;
b) the terminology of non-statutory, used in the oral speech of military personnel

and in some types of military literature, but not officially accepted.

2. Emotionally colored elements of military vocabulary.

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Emotionally colored elements of military vocabulary are in most cases stylistic

synonyms of the relevant military terms (for example,

doughboy (colloquially) and

infantryman (term)

have the meaning

“infantryman”).

The above groups of military vocabulary are closely interrelated with regard to

their place in the vocabulary of the language, the sphere of use, and certain functions.

The corresponding series of words of different groups of military vocabulary, as

a rule, synonymously denote the same objects, processes and phenomena. They may
have such common for both groups’ properties as the comparative narrowness of their
use, lack of clarity or incomprehensibility for persons not belonging to the armed
forces.

Many words belonging to one group of military vocabulary may lose their

individual properties and, on the contrary, acquire properties characteristic of another
group. For example, words such as mess, pillbox, silo, dud, which used to refer to
military slang, i.e., emotionally colored elements of military vocabulary, became
authorized terms.

Changes in the composition of military vocabulary, especially its continuous

replenishment, the loss of a number of words from it, a change in meanings, are closely
related to the continuous development of the general conditions of activity of the armed
forces.

Modern English military terminology is developing most intensively in the field

of developing new types of weapons – primarily nuclear-weapon and space combat

systems (orbital weapon; global missile “global rocket”; silo launcher “launching
structure of the mine type”; stratospheric fallout “Contamination of the stratosphere
by radioactive products of a nuclear explosion”), radio electronic and other technical
means (beam rider guidance “guidance along the beam”; laser range finder “laser
range finder”; ambush detection device “(technical) means of detecting ambushes”;
air cushy on vehicle “hovercraft”).

Aviation terminology is constantly updated, in particular, the terminology of army

aviation (

continuous airborne alert; radar picket aircraft, radar patrol aircraft;

gunship; armed helicopter; copter-borne; transported by helicopters; aviation
battalion; aviation battalion; army aviation battalion; helilift “helicopter transfer”).

Many new terms emerged in connection with the reorganization of the formations

of ground forces and higher command

(strike command “shock command”; field army

support command “command of the rear of the army”; division base “common
organizational elements of divisions, division base”; logistics operations center
“center rear control”).

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There are also new terms related to the change of some principal provisions

(doctrines) in tactics and operational art

(area defense “defense” of the area; positional

“defense”; forward edge of the battle area; “safety edge” of nuclear safety; “Spoiling
attack” preemptive strike; counterattack with going beyond the leading edge; “nuclear
environment” conditions of use of nuclear weapons, “nuclear situations”).

Especially many new words are noted in terminology, reflecting the concepts of

the so-called “war by unusual means and methods” (unconventional warfare). The
terms related to various issues of the American military strategy

(balance of terror

“balance of intimidation forces”; massive retaliation “massive retaliation, massive
counter-strike”; brush fire war “local war, local war; local action”; quick –response
strategy “flexible response strategy”.

Many new military terms arose in connection with the American aggression in

Vietnam

(enclave “coastal bridgehead; strong point”; strategic hamlet “strategic

village (fortified settlement)”; jungle canopy platform “helicopter landing pad on the
crowns in the jungle”).

It is necessary to keep in mind quite significant differences in the English military

vocabulary used in the USA and England. This is primarily due to some specific
features of the organization, weapons, tactics of the armed forces of these countries, as
well as certain differences between the English and American versions of modern
English. Despite the ongoing work within the framework of the NATO on the
unification of English military terminology (especially in the field of tactics and
operational art), discrepancies in terminology continue to exist. For example, the terms

“compound

or “union

” in the United States are expressed using the term large unit,

and in England –

formation

. The same term may have different meanings in the USA

and England. For example, the general staff in the United States has the meaning of

“the general part of the headquarters

,

and in England, the “

operational-intelligence

part of the headquarters

.

There are noticeable differences in military ranks and

especially in the terminology of the organization: the “Secretary of Defense” in the
United States is called the

Secretary of Defense

and in England the

Defense Minister

.

A number of terms are used only in the United States (for example,

the Chief of Staff

“chief of staff

– type of armed forces

) or only in England (for example,

the commandos

“commando

”). Some differences in spelling and pronunciation should also be

considered.

English military vocabulary also includes a number of military terms specific to

the armed forces of Canada, Australia and other English-speaking countries.

The presence of the army is an obligatory characteristic of any modern sovereign

state. A distinctive feature of the army is the number and degree of its combat

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capability. The composition of the army, traditions and the attitude of society to the
army are the most important factors that influence the formation and further
development of military terminology.

It should be noted that military terminology is replenished not only during various

kinds of conflicts, but also during military reforms and transformations. The secrecy
and closeness of the army form the prerequisites for the emergence and development
of the military language.

The word term is derived from the Latin terminus and is translated as “limit,

ending”. The main difference between terminological and non-terminological
vocabulary is its maximum abstractness, unambiguity, internationality, consistency
and semanticism. Thus, the term refers to a word or phrase assigned to a specific
concept in the system of concepts of a given field of science or technology (1, 14).

V. N. Shevchuk defines military terminology as follows: “an orderly set of

military language terms that reflect the conceptual apparatus of military science and,
more broadly, military affairs and are associated with the forms and methods of
warfare, with the strategic use of the armed forces, as well as the operational and
tactical use of the unions, connections, units and divisions, with their organization,
armament and technical equipment” (5, 94).

Military terms can be classified as follows:
In the field of use (different types of

troops, staff, general tactical, organizational,

military topographical, command-drill);

Terms of various types of troops – terms that are used to describe concepts in the

formations of the armed forces: units, formations, associations, institutions,
establishments, organizations and control bodies, for example

artillery, infantry, radio

technical troops, air force, airborne troops.

Staff terms are terms that are widely used in military command and control bodies,

for example

head quarters, staff car, personnel

.

General tactical terms – terms that are used in solving general tactical tasks,

conducting combined-arms combat and its preparation, for example,

defense, field

gendarmerie, offensive.

Organizational terms are terms that are used in various military units, for example,

unit, battalion, division, company

.

Military topographic terms are terms that are used in the study of terrain,

orientation, target designation, the measurement of the terrain, for example,

topographic map, cartography, land survey, aero photography

.

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Command-line terms - terms that are used in the drill and command speech of

military personnel, for example

Arms, port! Weapons on the chest! Eyes, right! Look

right!

Morphological word formation is the main method of word formation and

includes the following methods: affixation, composition, reduction and conversion.

Affixing is a way of word-formation, which allows you to create new terms by

attaching word-forming affixes to the basics of different parts of speech, for example

maintainability, surveillance, deterrence, reunion

.

Composition – this is a method of word formation, which allows you to form new

words by combining the foundations of two or more words, for example

aircraft,

break-through, battle wise.

The abbreviation is the omission of individual letters and syllables in a word, and

sometimes the removal of a significant part of a word except individual letters, for
example

Svc Pit 'service platoon', sub is derived from the 'submarine', radome from

radar dome 'radome'.

Conversion is a very common type of word formation in the military terminology

of the English language, in which a word belonging to a certain part of speech, without
changing the original form, acquires the meaning of another part of speech. For
example,

shell-to shell; rocket-to rocket; mortar-to mortar; blockade-to blockade.

Speaking about the methods of word formation, we should mention the semantic

method, namely the transfer of meaning. The name of the inventor can be transferred
to the item itself. For example,

Diesel

is the name of the inventor and the name of the

type of engine

, Kalashnikov

is the name of the designer and the world famous machine

gun,

Sten

‘machine gun’,

Bren

light machine gun’.

It should be noted that, in general, the increase in the vocabulary volume of the

term system is carried out at the expense of the internal resources of the language
(extensive use of word-formation affixes, word composition, abbreviations).

According to the structure (one-piece, two-part, multi-part) the basis of the

military terminology of the English language is one-piece and multi-component
nominative units, which are mainly represented by substantive connections, for
example,

battle – battle field – battlefield interdiction – battlefield interdiction line –

battlefield air interdiction.

According to the stylistic characteristics (neutral and emotionally-colored lexical

units).

It should be noted that military terms are usually represented by lexical units

neutral in emotional coloring. Nevertheless, one should cite this classification by

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stylistic characteristics, since emotionally-colored lexical units of the military sphere
denote the same concepts as neutral lexical units.

Under the emotional coloring refers to the meaning of the word emotional attitude

to the concept, called the word. Examples of emotionally colored military vocabulary
of the English language are the following words:

push-button war ‘button war’,

trigger-happy ‘shooting indiscriminately’, and slick ship unarmed helicopter’

(5, 19).

THE LIST OF USED LITERATURE

1.

Борисов В.В. Аббревиация и акронимия. Военные и научно-технические сокращения в

иностранных языках / Под ред. А.Д. Швейцера. – М.: Военное издательство, 1972. – 320 с.

2. Маслов Д.А. Военная терминология современного японского языка: В функционально-

сопоставительном аспекте: диссертация ... кандидата филологических наук. – М., 2002. – 154

с.

3. Мурог И.А. Вербальный компонент английских военных рекламных текстов //

Филологические науки. Вопросы теории и практики. 2017. № 6 (72): В 3х частях. Часть 2. С.
123–127.

4. Павлова С.А. Тематические группы английской терминологии судостроения и судоремонта.

М.: Военная редакция, 1988. – 378 с.

5. Шевчук В.Н. Военно-терминологическая система в статике и динамике: диссертация ...

доктора филологических наук – М., 1985. – 488 с.

6.

Стрелковский Г.М. Теория и практика военного перевода. Немецкий язык. – М.: Военная

редакция, 1979. – 272 с.

REFERENCES

1. Borisov V.V.

Voennye i nauchno-tehnicheskie sokrashhenija v inostrannyh jazykah

(Military and

scientific-technical abbreviations in foreign languages), Moscow, 1972, 320 p.
2. Maslov D.A.

Voennaja terminologija sovremennogo japonskogo jazyka: V funkcional'no-

sopostavitel'nom aspekte

(Military terminology of modern Japanese), candidate’s thesis, Moscow,

2002, 154 p.
3. Murog I.A.

Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii i praktiki

, 2017, No 6 (72), pp. 123-127.

4. Pavlova S.A.

Tematicheskie gruppy anglijskoj terminologii sudostroenija i sudoremonta

(Thematic

groups of the English terminology of shipbuilding and ship repair), Moscow: Voennaja redakcija,
1988, 378 p.
5. Shevchuk V.N.

Voenno-terminologicheskaja sistema v statike i dinamike

(The system of military

terminology in statics and dynamics), Doctor’s thesis, Moscow, 1985, 488

р.

6. Strelkovskij G.M.

Teorija i praktika voennogo perevoda. Nemeckij jazyk

(Theory and practice of

military translation. German), Moscow: Voennaja redakcija, 1979, 272

p.


16

Библиографические ссылки

Borisov V.V. Voennye i nauchno-tehnicheskie sokrashhenija v inostrannyh jazykah (Military and scientific-technical abbreviations in foreign languages), Moscow, 1972, 320 p.

Maslov D.A. Voennaja termino/ogija sovremennogo japonskogo jazyka: V funkcional'no-sopostavitel'nom aspekte (Military terminology of modem Japanese), candidate’s thesis, Moscow, 2002,154 р.

Murog LA. Filologicheskie nauki. Voprosy teorii ipraktiki, 2017, No 6 (72), pp. 123-127.

Pavlova S.A. Tematicheskie gruppy anglijskoj terminologiisudostroenija isudoremonta (Thematic groups of the English terminology of shipbuilding and ship repair), Moscow: Voennaja redakcija, 1988,378 р.

Shevchuk V.N. Voenno-terminologicheskaja sistema v statike i dinamike (The system of military terminology in statics and dynamics), Doctor’s thesis, Moscow, 1985,488 p.

Strelkovskij G.M. Teorija ipraktika voennogo perevoda. Nemeckij jazyk (Theory and practice of military translation. German), Moscow: Voennaja redakcija, 1979, 272 p.

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