Реструктуризация системы высшего образования Узбекистана в условиях повышения конкурентоспособности экономики

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Муминов, Н., Хошимов, П., Ким, Т., Захирова, Г., & Рахматов, Х. (2023). Реструктуризация системы высшего образования Узбекистана в условиях повышения конкурентоспособности экономики. in Library, 19(1), 33–40. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/22094
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Аннотация

В данной научной статье исследованы вопросы, связанные с системой высшего образования в Узбекистане с учетом международного опыта. Демонстрируются структура высшего образования Узбекистана и его эволюция, дается некоторая информация в виде диаграмм и диаграмм. При изучении инновационных и прогрессивных методов образования зарубежных стран даны предложения и рекомендации по совершенствованию и развитию интеллектуального потенциала образовательной сферы и академий Республики Узбекистан на международной арене.

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AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

ISSN: 2576-5973

Vol. 3, No.1, Jan-Feb 2020

Restructuring the system of higher education of Uzbekistan in the

conditions of increasing the competitiveness of the economy

Nozim Muminov

1

, Pazliddin Hoshimov

2

, Tatyana Kim

3

, Gulnora Zahirova

4

, Khabibulla Rakhmatov

5

1,2,3

PhD, Associate Professor of the Department of Economic Theory, National University of Uzbekistan,

Uzbekistan

4

Senior Lecturer of the Department of Economic Theory, National University of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan

5

2-d year student, Department of Regional Economy, National University of Uzbekistan, Uzbekistan

Correspondent author:

muminov n@umail.uz

DOI 10.31150/ajebm.Vol3.Iss1.112

Abstract

:

In this scientific article explored the questions connected with high educational

system in Uzbekistan with the international experience view. There are demonstrated the structures
of high education of Uzbekistan and it’s evolution and there are given some information in charts
& diagrams. By learning innovative and progressive methods of education of the foreign countries
there are given some suggestions and recommendations to improve and develop of intellectual
potential, educational sector and academies of republic of Uzbekistan in international arena

.

Keywords:

Academies, international experiences, the quality of education, decrees of the

president, intellectual potential, the innovations in educational system, retraining the skilled
specialists, the system of education, diagrams and tables.

Introduction

A country that aspires to progress and wants to become competitive must pay attention to

science. Uzbekistan must develop as a progressive and innovative country.

Education begins from the family and nurture, and every child, every person has the right to it,

because the future of any country depends on a new, educated generation. No one rules out that our

country has created all the opportunities and conditions for obtaining high-quality and modern

education. One of the main tasks of higher education institutions in our country is the training and

retraining of qualified personnel that meet the requirements and technologies of today. The creation of

new and innovative higher education institutions, the opening of correspondence

and evening forms of education, and new methodologies for training and retraining of young

GLOBAL

RESEARCH

NETWORK

ONLINE RESEARCH HUB


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professionals, as well as the increase in quotas for admission to higher education institutions in the

regions are progressive reforms in our country.

The main part

In recent years, Uzbekistan has been working to improve the socio-economic situation and

create higher education institutions that meet international standards of education. In improving the

quality of training and retraining of specialists, the role of higher education institutions is great. The

quality of knowledge obtained in higher education institutions is associated with the level of

competence of students, the intellectual potential of the teaching staff and the highest level of teaching

methods. New programs, attracted faculty, category of students, modern technologies and others of

this kind, ensure the perfection and attractiveness of higher education institutions. In order to improve

the system of higher education the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan signed several decrees:

S

Presidential decree PP-2909 of April 20, 2017 "on improving the system of higher education»;

S

Presidential decree PP-3151 of July 27, 2017 " on increasing the role of the economy by sectors

and spheres in the training and retraining of specialists with higher education»;

S

Presidential decree PP-3182 of August 8, 2017. "on improving the socio-economic situation of

the regions»;

S

Presidential decree PP-3775 of June 5, 2018 "on improving the quality of education in higher

education institutions and providing young professionals with higher education, participation

in progressive reforms carried out in the country»

1

In Uzbekistan, higher education institutions have legal status. There are the following types of

higher education institutions:

>

Universities

>

Academies

>

Institutes

The legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan allows to open non-state (private) higher education

institutions taking into account the laws and regulations of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Ministry

of higher and secondary special education.

In total, there are 99 higher education institutions in our country, 24 branches of local institutes

and universities and 14 branches of foreign higher education institutions. And the quantity of institutes

in our country is 33, the quantity of universities is 24, academies - 2, 1 higher school and 1

Conservatory. If we look at the history, at the beginning of 1991, when the country only gained

1

From the decrees of the president of Uzbekistan.


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independence, the quantity of higher education institutions was 46 in the country. By 2019, This figure

has grown almost 2 times and left 99. However, if in 1991/1992 academic years the number of students

enrolled in higher education was about 337,4 thousand people, then by 2018/2019 academic year

statistics has grown imperceptibly, only 337,9 thousand people. One of the main reasons for a slight

increase in the quantity of students in higher education can be called the collapse of the USSR, then

many nationalities, especially Russians, have left the country and moved to the current Russian

Federation, and the number of people living in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan was sharply

reduced and was lower than in 1991/1992 academic year. Currently, if we compare the approximate

number of students enrolled in higher education institutions with the indicator of the end of the last

century, is about 337.9 we can say that today we have caught up and are ahead of the statistics of 1991.

Table №1.

The quantity of students, that entered to academies from 2000/2001 to 2018/2019

2

Regions

School year

2018/2019

2000/2001

relatively

2000/

2001

2005/

2006

2010/

2011

2015/

2016

2016/

2017

2018/

2019

Uzbekistan

44711

53915

64113

63933

63065 108745

2,4 times

Republic of

Karakalpakstan

2257

3616

3710

3993

4066

6767

3,0 times

Regions:

Andijan

2760

2958

3195

3395

3877

5529

2,0 times

Bukhara

2647

2942

3348

3389

3472

6581

2,5 times

Jizzakh

1066

1335

1866

2022

2052

4788

4,5 times

Kashkadarya

1696

1744

2690

2945

2954

5072

3,0 times

Navai

1202

1642

2107

2238

2093

3358

2,8 times

Namangan

1761

2278

2830

2772

2721

5741

3,3 times

Samarkand

3308

4455

5362

5884

5998

9870

3,0 times

Surkhandarya

1403

1490

1616

1644

1724

5485

4,1 times

Syrdarya

680

692

964

1042

916

2705

4,0 times

2

edu.uz; stat.uz


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Tashkent region

1949

2592

3169

1957

1517

4662

2,4 times

Fergana

2699

3784

4533

4550

4604

9318

3,4 times

Khorezm

1023

1819

1922

2050

1956

4390

4,3 times

Tashkent

20260

22568

26801

26052

25115

34479

1,7 times

If we consider and correlate the quotas of students admitted to higher education institutions in

Uzbekistan in 2000/2001 and 2018/2019 academic years, we can see that in 2000/2001 academic years,

the quantity of accepted students according to statistics was 44711 thousand people. In the period to

2016/2017 academic years this figure has gradually increased to 63065, due to higher quotas in

educational institutions, open correspondence and evening offices quantity of enrolled students in

higher education increased almost 2 times and amounted to 108745 thousand. And if to correlate

2018/2019 academic year with 2000/2001 that is, the figure exceeded 2.4 times. From this we can

conclude that every year the quota and the quantity of students enrolled in higher education institutions

will grow.

Table №2.

The distribution of students graduated the academies from 2000/2017 to 2017/2018 school

year

3

.

Regions

School year

2017/2018

2000/2001

relatively.,in %,

times

2000/

2001

2005/

2006

2010/

2011

2015/

2016

2016/

2017

2017/

2018

Uzbekistan

31568

57845

76379

66300

64100

68494

2.2

Republic of

Karakalpakstan

1796

3059

4974

3900

3900

4358

2.4

Regions:

Andijan

2034

3586

4511

3700

4000

4209

2.1

Bukhara

1381

2628

4417

3400

3400

3409

2.5

Jizzakh

630

1410

2549

2500

2300

2732

4.3

Kashkadarya

1295

1882

3639

3000

3100

3559

2.7

3

edu.uz, stat.uz

Navai

956

1779

3088

2200

2100

2197

2.3


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Namangan

1199

2690

3914

2700

2700

2948

2.5

Samarkand

2911

4680

5971

5900

6000

6417

2.2

Surkhandarya

908

1846

1995

1700

1700

1891

2.1

Syrdarya

391

785

1228

1000

1000

986

2.5

Tashkent region

1382

2564

3604

1800

1800

1745

126.3

Fergana

2068

4158

5588

4800

4600

4769

2.3

Khorezm

850

1711

2181

2000

2000

2163

2.5

Tashkent

13767

25067

28720

27700

25500

27111

2.0

In the academic year 2000/2001, 31568 students across the country were honored with higher

education. At the same time, the largest share comes to the city of Tashkent, where the quantity of

graduates turned out to be 13767. And the smallest number was revealed in the Syrdarya region, where

the quantity of graduates of higher educational institutions was only 391 people. In other regions, the

indicators differed slightly from each other. By 2010/2011 academic year across the country the

number of graduates of higher educational institutions has become the maximum 76379 thousand

people for the entire period of time according to the current. Over the following years, the figure

gradually fell and by the 2017/2018 academic year amounted to 68494 thousand people and it is

relatively higher than the figure of the 2000s by 2.2 times.

Now let's consider the ratio of students of higher educational institutions by specialties (in%).

In the academic year 2010/2011 the percentage of students in the humanitarian sphere was

50%, in the spheres of industry and machinery - 18%, in services - 4%, in Economics, law and social

fields - 15%, agriculture and water management - 6% health care and social assistance - 7%. In the

period 2018/2019 academic years this figure was as follows:

The humanitarian sphere is 46.6%;

Industry and technology-27.3%;

The service sector was 4.1%;

Economics, law and social sphere-8.7%;

Agriculture and water resources - 6,8%;

Health and social security-6.5%.

From this, we can say that in 10 years the quantity of students studying in the humanitarian sphere

has quietly dropped by 4%, and despite this, the humanitarian direction is leading to this day. In second

place is the sphere of industry and technology with 27.3%. It can be noted that the number of applicants

enrolled in the field of industry and technology for 10 years increased by almost 10% and amounted

to 27.3%. If we do not consider the economy, law and social sphere which from 2010/2011 academic


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year to 2018/2019 grew from 8.7 to 15%, almost 2 times, we can say that in other areas for 10 years,

no special changes have occurred.

2010/2011

2018/2019

Diagramm №1. The qualitative structure of faculty system of academies in Uzbekistan

2

.

According to the chart and statistics, during the academic year 2010/2011, the percentage of faculty

was as follows:

>

teachers without academic degrees-59%

>

candidates of science-3 3%

>

doctor of science-7%

In the period 2018/2019 the indicator was:

>

teachers without academic degrees-32%

>

candidates of science-23%

>

doctor of science-8%

As we can see, the quantity of people engaged in scientific activities every year is becoming

smaller, proof of this could be called the above figures. Over 10 years, i.e. from 2010 to 2019, the

figure of people engaged in scientific activities (PhD) fell by 10%, the percentage of doctoral

protections since 2010 increased by a slight 1%, and teachers without scientific degrees at all fell by

almost 30%. Fewer and fewer people want to be a teacher in our country.

To improve the quality of training of qualified personnel and improve the system of higher education

will require a lot of effort. First of all, taking into account the international experience, the reforms

2

The diagram created with information in stat.uz and edu.uz


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carried out in our country, the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the training of qualified

personnel in all areas to ensure cooperation of industrial companies, ministries and institutions with

higher education institutions in order for students to escape from theories and merge with practice in

different institutions, in a competitive environment to form special educational programs and

documents for effective management of the higher education system, to form and develop a

mechanism of competitive environment in higher education institutions, to restructure the financing

of higher education to improve the quality of knowledge.

Conclusion

Summing up the results of this brief study, it should be noted that preserving the state

supervision to create a system of decentralization of higher education management, that is:

S

Increase the number of foreign educational institutions on the territory of the Republic of

Uzbekistan;

S

Gradually move to a system where higher education institutions will independently determine

the amount of contracts;

S

To solve problems in industrial enterprises and production to form a number of scientific

research, for the effectiveness of production to introduce technical, innovative projects,

master's and doctoral dissertations in practice, to reclassify higher education institutions in the

centers of scientific research to improve the efficiency and competitiveness of industrial

enterprises;

S

Maintaining, for example, cooperation between higher education institutions and the labour

market. In a competitive environment, increase quotas for those specialties where the

requirements for them are much higher. Carry out some extrapolation and expert assessments

(personnel planning) to predict the requirements for qualified personnel for individual regions;

S

Taking into account the international experience to open new directions in bachelor's and master's

degrees, to improve the system of financing of higher education institutions.

All in all, in a competitive and market-based system, the above proposals will be able to give

impetus to the development and maintenance of higher education and raise the ranking of local higher

education institutions in the international arena.

References

1.

Muminov N. - The potential and the structure of education in European countries. The

magazine “Modern education” - 2015.

2.

Xashimov P., Oripov M. - The educational system of Great Britain. №12 URL:

https://cyberleninka.rU/article/n/buyuk-britaniyaning-talim-tizmi - 2017

3.

Rakhmanov N. - The main problems in educational system of Uzbekistan. // The magazine


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AJEBM, Vol. 3, No. 1, JAN-FEB 2019

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40

“Macroeconomic problems” Tashkent TSUE - 2015

4.

Rakhmanov N., Nazarova X. - The role of Uzbekistan in training and retraining of qualified

personnel for the branches of foreign universities. // International innovation research: The
magazine “The science and enlightenment” - 2018.

Библиографические ссылки

Muminov N. - The potential and the structure of education in European countries. The magazine “Modern education” - 2015.

Xashimov P., Oripov M. - The educational system of Great Britain. №12 URL: https://cyberleninka.rU/article/n/buyuk-britaniyaning-talim-tizmi - 2017

Rakhmanov N. - The main problems in educational system of Uzbekistan. // The magazine “Macroeconomic problems” Tashkent TSUE - 2015

Rakhmanov N., Nazarova X. - The role of Uzbekistan in training and retraining of qualified personnel for the branches of foreign universities. // International innovation research: The magazine “The science and enlightenment” - 2018.

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