Патоморфологические изменения у цыплят, зараженных сальмонеллой пуллором галлинариум

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Элмуродов, Б. (2024). Патоморфологические изменения у цыплят, зараженных сальмонеллой пуллором галлинариум. in Library, 2(2). извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/33031
Бозорбой Элмуродов, Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт

Директор Научно-исследовательского ветеринарного института, профессор, доктор ветеринарных наук

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Аннотация

В статье представлены сведения о возрастной динамике заражения цыплят-бройлеров S. pullorom Gallinarium. Также приведены сведения о патоморфологических изменениях в организме цыплят.

Похожие статьи


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PATHOPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN CHICKS INFECTED WITH

SALMONELLA PULLOROM GALLINARIUM

DOI:

10.5281/zenodo.11148612

Elmurodov B.A.

professor

Veterinary Scientific Research Institute

Abstract:

The article provides information on the age-related dynamics of broiler

chicken infection with S. pullorom gallinarium. Also, information about

pathomorphological changes in the organism of chicks is given.

Key words:

pullorosis, infection, leukocyte, basophil, eosinophil, atrophy,

dystrophy, thrombosis, infiltration, colony-forming unit, damaging dose, lethal dose,

nutrient medium.

Relevance of the topic:

Poultry disease is one of the diseases that are causing

enough damage to the poultry industry, which occurs especially in the early life of

chicks. In many cases, when the pullorosis of chickens damages poultry farms, it is

possible to interpret the results of scientific research more from pasteurellosis,

colibacteriosis and streptococcosis from secondary diseases. In the early stages of life,

chickens are susceptible to diseases like other young organisms, including the mixed

form of infections, especially the age-related forms of pullorosis, which are severe in

some stages, have been studied in more foreign literature sources.

The increase in the epidemiological importance of poultry and poultry products,

the inextricability of this process, the changes in the sanitary-epidemiological service

in our republic, the epidemiological control system over existing salmonellosis and

other secondary diseases require its reconstruction. The analysis of the literature data

shows that until now, in poultry farms of our Republic, the weight of chickens from

chickens among all infectious diseases is 26-40 percent. Pathomorphological diagnosis

of chickens infected with avian pullorosis is one of the urgent problems facing

specialists. In addition, the dynamics of infection of broilers with S. pullorum

gallinarium according to age has not been studied in detail.


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Object and methods of research:

in the study of hematological processes in

pullorosis of chicks in the laboratory of hematology and biochemistry of the Central

Hospital of Samarkand region (before and after the experiment results),

pathomorphological in the div of birds infected with the causative agent of the disease

(S. pullorom gallinarium) changes detection studies were carried out in the laboratories

of microbiology, pathomorphology and research of diseases of young animals of

Veterinary ITI. The Panchenkov method was used to analyze erythrocytes from the

blood samples of chicks infected with different concentrations of S. pullorum

gallinarium for one week (until death in some groups) and the Sali hemometer was

used to determine hemoglobin.

In order to study the histogram of pullorosis in laboratory conditions, samples

were taken from the organs of infected and forcibly slaughtered chickens for

pathomorphological research. For this purpose, to examine the samples in a small

histological manner, initially using the biopsy method, pieces are taken from the

following organs from sick chickens; samples were taken from trachea, lymph node,

liver, lungs, heart, spleen and kidneys, and pathological changes were examined by

histological method. Pathological samples were taken from the internal organs of all

examined birds for bacteriological examination, and inoculations were planted on

different nutrient media (Levin, Ploskiriev agar, salmonella shigella and 5% blood

agar). Sections were taken from the blocks with the help of a microtome, a

micropreparation was prepared on a glass slide, stained with hematoxylin and eosin,

and subjected to microscopy. Microscopy revealed pathogistological changes in

internal organs of birds. A 10x0.25 lens of a Carl Zeiss microscope was used for this

[8]. For histological examination of pathological samples (slices) taken from internal

organs and tissues, a histopreparation was prepared by the paraffin method as follows

(50-100 milliliters were transferred in dark glass bottles)

I. Fixation

1. The obtained pathological samples (pieces) were stored in 10-12 percent

formalin solution for 24 hours.


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2. It was stored for 24 hours in a solution of equal ratio (1:1) of ethyl alcohol and

formalin at 960C;

3. These fragments were kept in absolute alcohol at 96-1000C for 12-24 hours.

II. Dehydration

1. The obtained pathological samples (pieces) were kept in 960C alcohol solution

for 24 hours for dehydration;

2. The next day, it was kept in an alcohol solution at 960C for another 24 hours;

III. Putting paraffin

1. For 6-12 hours, it was placed in a solution of equal proportions of alcohol and

chloroform at 960C;

2. Kept in pure chloroform solution for 6-12 hours. At the end of storage, it was

observed that the color of the pieces became clear;

3. In order for the paraffin to absorb better at once, the pieces were placed in a

solution of equal volume of melted paraffin and chloroform and left for 2-3 hours in a

thermostat with a temperature of +35 +400С. Sometimes such solutions were stored

frozen when not in use;

4. Then the slices were placed in melted paraffin kept in a thermostat at +54

+550С. In this case, the fragments were kept in the melted paraffin in the first container

for 1.5-2.5 hours, then they were placed in the second container using heated tweezers

and kept for 0.5-1.5 hours, paying attention to the size and thickness of the fragments;

5. The pieces were placed in a jar with glycerin placed on the bottom and heated

to +60+700C using a gas burner, and melted clean paraffin was placed on top until it

was covered with a thickness of 0.5 cm;

6. The paraffin container with the fragments was cooled in a large container filled

with cold water. In this case, the cooling of paraffin was carried out based on its melting

moving from the bottom to the top;

7. After hardening, the paraffin was cut from the edges, this paraffin was

definitely in a homogeneous state, if it was determined that there were limited flowing


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areas in the paraffin (crushing, rubbing when broken), it was re-laid with a new portion

of paraffin;

8. Blocks were cut from solidified paraffin, leaving a paraffin layer at least 2 mm

thick around the pieces. In this case, each piece was made separately;

9. The obtained blocks were glued with a spatula so that the edges of the heated

blocks do not come out of the board.

Histosections were prepared from the blocks using a microtome, and a

micropreparation was prepared on a glass slide, stained with hematoxylin and eosin,

and subjected to microscopy. Microscopy revealed pathogistological changes in

internal organs of chicks.

Results and their analysis:

When blood samples were taken from the underwing

vein of infected birds on days 1-5 after the experiment, following aseptic and antiseptic

rules, the number of erythrocytes was 29.7%, the number of leukocytes and platelets

was 12.45 and 6.72%, and hemoglobin and it was determined that there were changes

in the blood parameters of chickens in the II comparative control group to 21.6 percent

(Table 1).

Table 1

Hematological changes in chicks infected with S. pullorom pathogen

Checkou

t time

Erythrocy

te,

million/μl

Leukocyte,

thousand/μ

l

Leukoformula

E

B

M

L

Neutrophils

rod

nucleate

d

articular

core

Norm

3,18±0,14 25,18±1,5 2,8 2,2 4,4 56,6 4,4±0,31 40,4±3,23

Experimental group I 0.5 ml 05 billion m.h. n=10

1- day

3,24±0,18 31,45±1,48 3,1 1,76 3,9 58,2 4,6±0,27 35,5±2,31

2- day

3,19±0,17 30,29±1,62 3,2 1,8 4,0 58,0 4,2±0,24 34,5±2,26

3- day

3,16±0,22 30,20±2,28 2,6 1,7 4,7 59,4 4,1±0,38 40,4±2,34


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4-day

3,32±0,26 31,28±2,04 2,2 1,7 4,4 59,2 4,3±0,34 41,0±2,61

5-day

3,20±0,28 29,74±2,18 2,9 1,75 4,2 61,4 4,0±0,26 43,2±2,64

II experimental group 0.25 ml 05 billion m.h. n=10

1-day

3,24±0,17 29,61±1,54 3,1 1,76 3,9 55,2 4,4±0,24 35,5±2,31

2-day

3,12±0,13 29,83±1,91 3,2 1,8 4,0 53,0 4,3±0,26 36,5±2,56

3-day

3,24±0,14 31,20±2,25 3,6 1,6 4,3 52,4 4,1±0,33 42,4±2,74

4-day

3,21±0,17 31,28±2,4 3,1 1,8 4,1 51,2 4,2±0,3 41,4±2,61

5-day

3,25±0,21 29,94±2,31 3,0 1,7 4,0 50,4 4,1±0,25 43,4±2,84

Control group III 0.5 ml of 0.9 percent physiological solution n=10

1-day

3,20±0,19 25,21±1,52 3,1 2,2 3,9 55,2 4,6±0,27 35,5±2,31

2-day

3,21±0,18 24,33±1,86 3,2 1,8 4,0 53,4 4,2±0,24 34,5±2,26

3-day

3,34±0,18 22,26±2,04 2,6 1,9 4,2 54,1 4,1±0,38 40,4±2,34

4-day

3,31±0,19 23,28±2,07 2,2 1,8 4,1 54,2 4,3±0,34 41,0±2,61

5-day

3,35±0,24 24,74±2,01 2,9 2,1 4,3 51,6 4,0±0,26 43,2±2,64

Note: xxx-P<0.01;, xxxx- P<0.001.

The number of basophils in the blood smear was not significantly different from

the number of basophils in the blood of healthy chickens of the comparative control

group.

The main changes were observed in the remaining types of leukocytes. Of course,

it is difficult for any young organism to adapt to this pathological process.

The number of eosinophils increased by 16.9%, pseudoeosinophils by 34.8%, and

the number of monocytes by 19.42%, while the number of lymphocytes decreased by

11.86%.

Thus, the age-related damage dynamics of the morphological parameters of the

blood of chicks fed on milk, i.e., the amount of erythrocytes and hemoglobin, decrease,

and the number of leukocytes and platelets increase, was determined in the research.


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In the leukocyte formula, the number of eosinophils, pseudo-eosinophils and

monocytes increased sharply by 21.16%, and the number of lymphocytes decreased,

without changing the number of basophils.

According to the results of histological research; when the internal organs of

chicks were examined pathomorphologically, most of the main changes occurred in

parenchymatous organs. A strong development of hemodynamic and dystrophic

processes was observed in them, especially in the first 1-5 days of chicks.

Cardiovascular vessels are dilated, vascular wall cells are swollen, endothelium is

displaced, there are a lot of histiocyte, lymphoid and leukocyte cell clusters around

some vessels, muscles are divided into fibers, some fibers have undergone granular

dystrophy.

Hemorrhagic necrotizing pneumonia developed strongly in the lungs. The cavities

of most alveoli are filled with erythrocytes. Interalveolar capillary nets are expanded

and filled with blood, as a result of which the walls are thickened, connective tissue

fibers are swollen. As a result of these changes, it was found that a large part of the

lung parenchyma was affected by atelectasis. It was observed in comparative

experiments that the interstitial tissue was swollen in all sections of the lungs.

Changes in the larynx and larynx were expressed in the form of catarrhal or severe

fibrinosis - hemorrhagic and desquamative inflammations. Because desquamation of

the respiratory epithelium was strongly aggravated in the first experimental group of

birds, the private layer of the mucous membranes was completely opened and sharply

swollen, as well as infiltrated with a large number of pseudo-eosinophilic leukocytes.

Lymphoid cells are collected along some vessels. It was found that the mucous

membranes of some birds were partially necrosed and swollen.

A necrotic mass consisting of fibrin, fragments of respiratory epithelium,

pseudoeosinophils, lymphocytes, and erythrocytes was detected in the cavity of the

larynx and larynx.

Pathohistological changes in the spleen are expressed by the fullness of the

vessels, a little thickening of the trabeculae, and the uncertainty of the appearance of


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the fibers. The border of the red pulp is enlarged. Small hemorrhages and lymphoid

collections are visible in some places. These changes are the effect of the general

pathogistological process taking place in the div.

Histological changes in lymph nodes are not the same in all nodes. Noticeable

changes are in nodes between the portal, intestinal mesentery, and lung wall, where

serous edema, serous-hemorrhagic lymphadenitis, and extravasates of various sizes

have developed. In addition to hemorrhages in the lymph nodes located near the parts

of the lungs with severe pathological processes, the sinuses are filled with lymphocyte

and leukocyte collections.

The pathogistological changes in the kidneys are mainly general pathological

processes, hemodynamic changes and granular, and in some places, fatty dystrophy of

the epithelium of the renal tubules are often detected. As a result of the expansion of

the capillary nets of the kidney balls, only erythrocyte clusters were visible under the

microscope. It was found that the capsules around the balls were enlarged, filled with

purulent and fibrinous exudate. As a result of the enlargement of the epithelia, the

circular and straight tubes have no boundaries. Epithelial cores have undergone rhexis

and lysis. Morphological changes occurred in the kidneys, and irreversible processes

occurred in this part, like other organs.

General diagnosis of S. pullorum gallinarium was carried out on the basis of

bacteriological research in the microbiology laboratory of the Veterinary Institute of

Veterinary Medicine only by isolating the causative agent, identifying its type and

serotypes, and confirming its pathogenicity by biotesting. Determining the

pathogenicity of a microbial culture by conducting a biological test is important in

determining the effectiveness of biological drugs, immune sera and therapeutic agents.

Therefore, the virulence indicators of S. pullorum gallinarium, the main causative agent

of this disease, by conducting acute experimental experiments in poultry pullorose, will

make part of our experiments to study LD50 and LD100.

These experimental experiments were conducted on broiler chickens in the field

of meat in 5 (five) groups at the Microbiology Laboratory of VITI. Since it is clearly


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impossible for poultry pullorosis to occur acutely in the first ten days of the chicks' life,

the age of the chicks in the experiments was determined as 2-8 days. The results of

determination of LD50 and LD100 indicators of S. pullorom gallinarium in broiler

chickens are given in Table 2 below.

Our experiments on the results of determining the virulence indicators of S.

pullorum gallinarium, the main causative agent of salmonella in broiler chickens, were

performed in 4 experimental and 1 control groups. 10 chickens in 4 experimental

groups fed 2-8 days of meat were infected with S. pullorum gallinarium according to

the experimental diagram, and 12 chickens in the 5th control group were left as

uninfected control and were given the same volume of saline solution was sent.

Table 2

Results of determination of LD50 and LD100 indicators of S. pullorom

gallinarium in broiler chickens.

Groups

The

number

of

infected S. pullorum

gallinarium

cells

(1ml/piece) KHQB

Number of

infected

chicks

Number

of

dead and alive

chicks

Scientist

%

Dead

Alive

1- experience 750x10

6

10

10

0

100

2-experience 650x10

6

10

8

2

80

3-experience 500x10

6

10

5

5

50

4-experience 350x10

6

10

3

7

30

5- control

Phys. solution

12

0

12

0

In order to clarify the results of the experiment, the chicks in the experimental

group were observed for 10 days, and the dead and survivors were recorded in the

relevant journals. 100% and 50% chick lethality in the experiment was determined by

the method of Reed and Mench, based on the number of chicks that died and survived

at the end of the experiment.


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According to the data of Table 2, by the end of the experiment, not one out of 10

chicks survived in the chickens infected with 750 million pieces of S. pullorom

gallinarium in the 1st experiment group. In the 2nd experiment group infected with 650

million microbe cells (KHQB), 8 chicks died and 2 chicks survived. Of the chickens

infected with 500 million microbial bodies in the 3rd experiment group, 5 died, and the

remaining 5 survived. 3 out of 10 chicks in the 4th experiment group infected with 350

million microbial cells died, the remaining 7 survived. None of the chicks in the control

group died before the end of the experiment and they are healthy.

According to the results of the research, chicks infected with a large number of

bacterial cells are unable to protect themselves from pathogens based on their

biological laws, and quickly become infected with experimental salmonellosis without

showing any clinical symptoms. it was noted that he died. When the dead chicks were

dissected and examined, pathological anatomical changes characteristic of

salmonellosis were clearly visible. However, according to the results of bacteriological

tests, S. pullorum gallinarium was re-isolated from the pathological samples of dead

chickens. In other chicks of this group, the disease passed in an acute form, and in the

end death was observed in them as well.

24-36 hours after infection, when dead chicks were examined clinically and

pathologically, obvious clinical and pathomorphological changes characteristic of

pullorosis were observed. The chicks that did not die during the experiment were

lagging behind in growth and development compared to the control group, and became

prone to external environmental factors and susceptible to non-infectious diseases.

500 million in experience. 500 million due to the fact that 5 out of 10 infected

chickens in the 3rd experiment group, where the S. pullorum gallinarium microbe was

injected into the div, died by 50%. amount of salmonella was LD50 and 750 mln.

This amount was determined to be the LD100, as all 100% died in the immunized

group.

Conclusions:


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1) Pathomorphological changes in pullorosis infection of chicks are mainly

general dystrophic processes, especially hemodynamic and dystrophic changes were

detected in 2-8 days.

2) Morphological indicators of blood in chicks' blood, i.e., erythrocytes and

hemoglobin decreased by 29.7 and 21.6 percent, respectively, and the number of

leukocytes and thrombocytes increased by 12.45 and 6.72 percent, according to private

studies.

3) 500 mln. LD50 of S. pullorum gallinarium in the experimental group, 750 mln.

LD100 was found in 2-8-day-old chicks in the group injected with the microbe.

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Профилактика

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