Фауна и экология зоопаразитов в зообиоценозах

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Рахимов, М., Пулатов, Ф., Рахимов, М., Абдуллаева, Д., Сайфиддинов, Б., & Рузимуродов, А. (2024). Фауна и экология зоопаразитов в зообиоценозах. in Library, 1(1), 1984–1989. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/33804
Мухамад Рахимов, Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт

Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт, старший научный сотрудник лаборатории акарологии и арахноэнтомологии, доктор философии ветеринарных наук

Ф Пулатов, Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт
C.V.S., (Phd) Senior Researcher
Д Абдуллаева, Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт
Doctoral Student
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Сrossref
Scopus
Scopus

Аннотация

В статье представлены сведения о фауне, экологии и паразитарных заболеваниях вредных зоопаразитов (экто-, эндопаразиты и зоофильные насекомые), распространенные среди сельскохозяйственных и лабораторных животных (крупный рогатый скот, овцы, козы, куры, собаки, ослы, морские свинки и др.), а в зонах животноводства - зообиоценозы.


background image

Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1984

FAUNA AND ECOLOGY OF ZOOPARASITES IN ZOOBIOCENOSES

PULATOV F.S

1

, ISMOILOV A.SH

2

, RAKHIMOV M.YU

3

, ABDULLAEVA D.O

4

,

SAYFIDDINOV B.

F

5

, RUZIMURODOV A.R., D.V.S

6

,

1

C.V.S., (Phd) Senior Researcher,

2

Doctoral Student,

3

Junior Researcher,

4

Doctoral Student,

5

Student,

6

Professor - Scientific Supervisor

Scientific Research Institute of Veterinary Medicine E-mail:

nivi@vetgov.uz

ABSTRACT

The article presents information on the fauna, ecology and parasitic diseases of harmful zooparasites (ecto-,

endoparasites and zoophilic insects) common among agricultural and laboratory animals (cattle, sheep, goats,
chickens, dogs, donkeys, guinea pigs, etc.) and in the areas of animal husbandry- zoobiocenoses.

Keywords

Ecotone, ecotope, ecology, zoophile, synanthropus, parasite, insects, bovicola, mite, desinsection,

fauna, systematization, zoobiocenoses.

Фауна и экология зоопаразитов в зообиоценозах

Аннотация

В статье приведены сведения о фауне, экологии, фенологии

зоопаразитов (экто

-

и

эндопаразиты

),

распространенных в зообиоценозах и среди сельскохозяйственных также лабораторных животных

(крупный рогатый скот, овцы, козы, куры, собаки, ослы, морские свинки и др.)

,

и

также

животноводческих хозяйств.

Ключевые слова

Экотон, экотоп, экология, зоофил, синантроп, паразит, насекомое, бовикола, клещ

,

дезинсекция, фауна,

систематика, зообиоценоз (зоценоз).

Зообиоценозларда зоопаразитлар фаунаси ва экологияси

Аннотация

Мақолада зообиоценозларда қишлоқ хўжалиги ва лаборатория

ҳайвонлари (қорамол, қўй, эчки, товуқ, ит,

эшак, денгиз чўчқачаси ва бошқалар) орасида кенг тарқалган зарарли зоопаразитлар (экто

-

ва

эндопаразитлар) фаунаси, экологияси, фенологияси ва паразитар касалликлари ҳақида маълумотлар

келтирилган.

Калит сўзлар

Экотон, экотоп, экология, зоофил, синантроп, паразит, ҳашарот, бовикола, кана, дезинсекция, фауна,

систематика, зообиоценоз.

I.

INTRODUCTION

There are many types of harmful insects and mites in nature, most of which are carriers and distributors of deadly

bacteria. More than a thousand species of them are zooparasites that live on livestock farms, cattle farms,
pastures, in settlements, houses and parasitize on the div of animals and humans. Just as the distribution of
these zooparasites in ecological spaces is diverse, the negative impact on the national economy is also
multifaceted. In particular, harmful insects and mites as ecto- and endoparasites parasitize on the div of animals


background image

Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1985

and humans, causing parasitic diseases (entomosis and acarosis), as a result of which the milk productivity of
livestock decreases by 30-40%, and meat production by 10-12 kg per year, especially causes the death of a large
number of young cattle. According to scientific sources, animal husbandry in the USA suffers from zooparasitic
insects worth more than $ 10 billion a year.

In addition, blood-sucking insects and ticks are transmitted to humans and animals, causing many disasters such

as plague, malaria, typhoid fever, tick-borne encephalitis, mosquito-borne encephalitis, hemorrhagic fevers, Zika
virus, Ebola, nodular dermatitis, rickettsiosis, imbalance, tularemia, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis,
brucellosis, protozoosis, helminthiasis. In the coming years, the threat of their use as a means of bioterrorism is
expected.

It is obvious that the study of the fauna and ecology of zooparasitic insects is an urgent problem that has not only

economic and social, but also state and defense significance.

The solution to this problem will make it possible to develop measures to effectively protect livestock from

zooparasites, protect public health, increase labor productivity, and further increase livestock productivity.

Research purpose.

It consists of studying the fauna and ecology of zooparasites found in zoobiocenoses, that is,

Zoophiles, synbovils, synanthropic insects, ticks, lice, and bovikol.

II.

RESEARCH MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

Faunistic, epizootological, morphological studies, guidelines and identification tables in the laboratory of

arachnoentomology of collected insect species "Key to chewing lice (Mallophaga), domestic insects". Fauna of
the USSR. M., - L .: publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1940; Puff lice. Part
1.publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1959, (D.I. Blagoveshchensky),

Synanthropic

Diptera of the USSR fauna

. Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. M. 1956, (A. A.

Shtakelberg),

Atlas of ixodoid ticks

M.

Kolos

, 1968 (I. M. Ganiev, A. A. Aliverdiev), "Keys to arthropods

harmful to human health" Medgiz Moscow, 1958 (V.N. Beklemisheva), "Keys to insects of the European part of
the USSR", "Science" first part, V volume, Leningrad, 1969 (G. Ya. Bei-Bienko), "Keys to insects of the
European part of the USSR", "Science" second part, V volume, Leningrad, 1970 (G. Ya. Bei-Bienko),

Flies and

Disease

, Volume I., Princeton Univercity Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1971 (By Bernard Greenberg) and using

guidelines recommended by other researchers.

III.

RESEARCH RESULTS

The species composition of free-living zooparasitic insects may vary to some extent in different countries, i.e.

some species may be absent or, in minimal cases, may be numerically dominant, subdominant. Their faunal
composition and ecology differ to some extent in different eco-stations.

The research was carried out on livestock breeding of personal subsidiary, personal and farm households in

different regions of the country, in tugai forests and pastures of the Zarafshan River at 27 livestock farms and
9270 farm animals in private houses and more than 145 laboratory animals:

The following types of zooparasites and parasitic diseases have been identified in zoobiocenoses:

Table 1

s.n.

Found species of zoo parasites

Parasite names

Types of animals

ca

ttl

e

sh

ee

p

g

o

at

d

on

k

ey

h

en

d

og

h

ed

g

eh

og

w

h

ite

m

o

u

se

g

u

in

ea

p

ig

1.

Bovicola bovis

Bovicolez

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2.

Bovicola ovis

Bovicolez

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

3.

Bovicola eqvi

Bovicolez

-

-

- + -

-

-

-

-

4.

Trichodectes canis

Trihodectosis

-

-

-

-

- + -

-

-


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Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1986

5.

Bovicola caprae

Bovicolez

-

- + -

-

-

-

-

-

6.

Menacanthus stramenius

Menacanthosis

-

-

-

- + -

-

-

-

7.

Argas persicus

Argazidosis

-

-

-

- + -

-

-

-

8.

Goniocotes hologaster

Goniocotosis

-

-

-

- + -

-

-

-

9.

Сtenocepha

lides canis

Ctenocephalidosis

-

-

-

-

- + -

-

-

10.

Сtenocepha

lides caprae

Ctenocephalidosis

-

- + -

-

-

-

-

-

11.

Haematopinus eurysternus

Hematopinosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12.

Linognathus vituli

Linognatosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

13.

Linognathus ovillus

Linognatosis

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

14.

Psoroptes bovis

Psoroptosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15.

Psoroptes ovis

Psoroptosis

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.

Sarcoptes ovis

Sarcoptic mange

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

17.

Dermanyssus gallinae

Dermanisosis

-

-

-

- + -

-

-

-

18.

Dermacentor spp.

Dermacentorosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19.

Dermacentor marginatus

Dermacentorosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20.

Dermacentor dagestanicus

Dermacentorosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21.

Hyalomma anatolicum

Hyalommoz

+

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

22.

Hyalomma plumbeum

Hyalommoz

+

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

23.

Hyalomma asiaticum

Hyalommoz

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

24.

Hyalomma detritum

Hyalommoz

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25.

Haemaphysalis punctata

Hemafizalosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

26.

Hae. sulcata

Hemafizalosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

27.

Boophilus calcaratus

Boophilia

+

+ + -

-

-

-

-

-

28.

Rhipicephalus bursa

Ripicephalosis

+

+ + + - + -

-

-

29.

Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Ripicephalosis

-

- + -

- + -

-

-

30

Rhipicephalus turanicus

Ripicephalosis

+

+ + -

- + -

-

-

31

Rhipicephalus pumilio

Ripicephalosis

-

-

-

-

-

- +

-

-

32

Hypoderma bovis

Hypodermatosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

33

Oestrus ovis

Estrosis

-

+ -

-

-

-

-

-

-

34

Alveonasus lahorensis

Alveonasosis

+

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

35

Gliricola porcelli

Clericolosis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

36

Laelaps echidninus

Laylapsosis

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

+

-

It has been established that zooparasitoses of 36 nosological species predominate mainly among agricultural and

laboratory animals. Of these, parasitic diseases (acarosis and entomosis) are widespread, such as bovikoliosis,
linognatosis, psoroptosis, ripicephalosis, hyalomosis, and estrosis.

Permanent parasites infect animals (bovikola, trichodectes, hematopinus, linognathus, psoroptes, sarcoptes,

poultry malofagus) throughout the year, most often in November-May, temporary parasites - ixodic canals in late


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Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1987

spring and summer, while the forms of nymphs cause epizootics during the warmer months (June-August), even
in the winter months, the Argas and Dermanissus canals throughout the year.

According to the results of the study, zoophilic insects were found in all cattle on these farms, and when studying

the prevalence of zoophilic, synbovil and synanthropic insects in zoobiocenoses, the following situation was
observed. (Table 2).

Distribution status of zoophilous and synanthropic insects in zoobiocenoses

Table 2

The study identified 47 species of zoophilic, synanthropic, endophilic insects belonging to 33 genera belonging to

17 families of the Arthropoda type, the Insecta class, the dipteran and Hymenoptera family of zoophilic and
synanthropic insects in the observation zone (experimental field) and in livestock farms.

At the same time, representatives (species) of the Muscidae family prevailed in 77.62% of the total number of

collected insects. In the Zarafshan oasis, 19 species of zoophilic and synanthropic insects of the Muscidae family,
5 species of the Calliphoridae family, 4 species of the Sarcophagidae family, 3 species of the Drosophilidae
family, 2 species of the Sepsidae, Syrphidae, Simuliidae families were found.

Diagram of the seasonal distribution of the dominant zooparasitic species in zoobiocenoses:

Family name

All collected

zoophilous

insects

Number of

generations

Number of

species

Renewal rate,

in%

1

Muscidae

1592

9

19

77,62

2

Calliphoridae

186

5

5

9,06

3

Sarcophagidae

26

4

4

1,26

4

Drosophilidae

31

1

3

1,51

5

Scatophagidae

1

1

1

0,05

6

Scatopsidae

2

1

1

0,09

7

Piophilidae

28

1

1

1,36

8

Sepsidae

5

1

2

0,24

9

Syrphidae

8

1

2

0,39

10

Milichidae

7

1

1

0,34

11

Simuliidae

127

2

2

6,19

12

Culicidae

6

1

1

0,29

13

Ceratopogonidae

1

1

1

0,05

14

Dryomyzidae

15

1

1

0,73

15

Sphaeroceridae

7

1

1

0,34

16

Formicidae

8

1

1

0,39

17

Vespidae

1

1

1

0,05

results

2051

33

47

100


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Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1988

Thus,

in

zoobi

oceno

ses,

Bovic

ola

bovis

turne

d out
to be

the

most

parasi

tic

amon

g

cattle

- up

to 98% in spring, H.euristernus - up to 25%, H.anatolicum - up to 90% in summer, S. calcitrans - up to 53.%
(extensiveness).

IV.

СONCLUSIONS

1. Among the existing agricultural and laboratory animals (cattle, sheep, goats, chickens, dogs, donkeys, guinea

pigs, white mice and others) in zoobiocenoses (anthropogenic biocenoses), there are 36 zoological (taxon) species
of zooparasites (ecto- and endoparasites). and parasitic diseases.

2. Among cattle, sheep and goats, bovikoliosis, hematopinosis, linognatosis, entomosis and ripicephalosis,

hyalommos, alveonazosis, acarosis are more common; among chickens, dermanisosis, goniocotosis,
menacanthosis; among dogs, trichodectosis, ctenocephalidosis and among laboratory animals, the diseases of
clericolosis and lilapsosis are common. These are diseases of epidemiological, sanitary and hygienic significance.

3. Permanent parasites (bovikola, linognatus, psoroptes, sarcoptes, mallophages) are more common in November-

May, while temporary parasites (ixodids and gamazids) are more common (epizootic) in May-August and cause
economic damage.

4. There are 19 species of zoophilic and synanthropic insects belonging to the Muscidae family, 5 species of the

Calliphoridae family, 4 species of the Sarcophagidae family, 3 species of the Drosophilidae family, 2 species of
the Sepsidae, Syrphidae, Simuliidae families in the form of infection.

Recommendations

.

We study the diversity and breeding seasons of entomoses and parasitic insects in livestock conditions and

recommend using the following environmentally friendly methods to combat them:

In order to prevent the spread of entomosis on the territory of farms, non-preservation of household waste on the

territory of the economy, storage of garbage containers and asphalting of their storage areas, concreting of pits
and floors in sheds and constant cleaning, covering the frames and doors of sheds and washing wastewater with
water (hydraulic flushing), discharge into manure using mechanisms, maintaining the cleanliness of buildings and
structures using pheromone self-adhesive handles, protective nets and mosquito nets.

Preventive disinsection against these zoophilic, synanthropic, exophilic, endophilic and parasitic arthropods

(acaris and hexapods) is recommended to be carried out in the spring of 2-3 months, continuous (radical)
disinsection in June-August on the basis of regulatory legal acts(8).

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

B.bovis
H.

е

urysternus

H.anatolicum
S.calcitrans


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Turkish Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation

; 32(2)

ISSN

2651-4451 |

e-ISSN

2651-446X

www.turkjphysiotherrehabil.org

1989

LIST OF USED LITERATURE:

1.

Blagoveshchensky D.I. Keys to the chewing lice (Mallophaga) of domestic animals. Fauna of the USSR. M., - L .: publishing house of the Academy
of Sciences of the USSR, 1940, 22-45 p.

2.

Shtakelberg A.A. Synanthropic Diptera of the fauna of the USSR. publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, M. 1 956.

3.

Beklemishev V.N. Keys to arthropods harmful to human health, Moscow, 1958.

4.

Blagoveshchensky D.I. Lice (Siphunculata) of domestic mammals. Fauna of the USSR. M., - L .: publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the
USSR, 1960, 70-73 p.

5.

Ganiev I.M., Aliverdiev A.A. "Atlas of ixodoid ticks", M. "Kolos", 1968, 110-111 p.

6.

Ruzimurodov A. The laws of evolution and zoobiodiversity. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand, 2008.

7.

Ruzimurodov A., Ismoilov A., Abdullaeva D. Zoophilic insects and disinsection. Agro Science 2016, "Special issue".

8.

Ruzimurodov A., Rakhimov M., Ismoilov A., Abdullaeva D., Pulatov F. Monograph. Pyrethroids. P rotection against natural foci and infectious
diseases. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand - 2018

9.

Ruzimurodov A. Biological parasitism. Optimization of livestock production. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand, 2010.

10.

Information on the Internet:

www.pesticidy.ru

,

www.google.com

Библиографические ссылки

Blagoveshchensky D.I. Keys to the chewing lice (Mallophaga) of domestic animals. Fauna of the USSR. M., - L .: publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1940, 22-45 p.

Shtakelberg A.A. Synanthropic Diptera of the fauna of the USSR. publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, M. 1956.

Beklemishev V.N. Keys to arthropods harmful to human health, Moscow, 1958.

Blagoveshchensky D.I. Lice (Siphunculata) of domestic mammals. Fauna of the USSR. M., - L .: publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960, 70-73 p.

Ganiev I.M., Aliverdiev A.A. "Atlas of ixodoid ticks", M. "Kolos", 1968, 110-111 p.

Ruzimurodov A. The laws of evolution and zoobiodiversity. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand, 2008.

Ruzimurodov A., Ismoilov A., Abdullaeva D. Zoophilic insects and disinsection. Agro Science 2016, "Special issue".

Ruzimurodov A., Rakhimov M., Ismoilov A., Abdullaeva D., Pulatov F. Monograph. Pyrethroids. Protection against natural foci and infectious diseases. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand - 2018

Ruzimurodov A. Biological parasitism. Optimization of livestock production. Zarafshan Publishing House, Samarkand, 2010.

Information on the Internet: www.pesticidy.ru, www.google.com

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