Акарапидоз пчел, меры профилактики и лечения

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Рахимов, М. (2024). Акарапидоз пчел, меры профилактики и лечения. in Library, 22(1), 181–185. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/34703
Мухамад Рахимов, Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт

Ветеринарный научно-исследовательский институт, старший научный сотрудник лаборатории акарологии и арахноэнтомологии, доктор философии ветеринарных наук

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Аннотация

В статье приведены сведения о профилактике и лечении варроатоза, который встречается у пчел и наносит большой экономический ущерб. Это заболевание представляет собой инвазивное заболевание, протекающее остро и хронически. При профилактике заболеваний целесообразно обеспечение зоогигиенического состояния окружающей среды и обмен эффективными препаратами против болезней.

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Volume 6| March, 2022 ISSN: 2795-7624

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Introduction:

The development of beekeeping

is mainly hindered by varroatosis, acarapidosis,

American and European rot, nosematosis,

ascospherosis, pesticide poisoning and a

number of other infectious and parasitic
diseases.

It has not been studied in which

regions these diseases are more or less

common, that is, their prevalence, at what time

of the year diseases occur, the causes of
diseases, the percentage of bee colonies

affected by these diseases, their amount of

damage caused by them.

One of the main problems of

acarapidosis is that any storage conditions

(strong family, good nutrition in winter),

methods and means used in the treatment and
prevention of other diseases cannot guarantee
the elimination of acarapidosis in this farm.

Treatment of this disease requires

special medical methods and means. Inventory,

disinfection of hives and other measures can
prevent infection of bees with infectious

diseases. However, disinfection measures for

acarapidosis do not affect them.

Economic damage:

the disease leads to a

weakening of the bee colony in winter and

spring, followed by death. The disease spreads

slowly, at first causing less damage to

beekeeping farms, and then gradually more.

The causative agent of the disease is

the mite Acarapis woodi. Ticks parasitize on

the trachea of adult bees. The size of the female

tick is 190-160 x 80-110 microns, the size of

the male tick is 85-120 x 60-80 microns. The
shape of the pincers is oval and flattened. The

tick has four pairs of legs, each of which

consists of six segments. The mites are found in

the bee's trachea. After 3-4 days, a fertilized
female tick lays 4-10 eggs, when their size is

much larger (60-65 x 120-140 microns). After

4-5 days, larvae 100-120 x 200-220 microns in
size emerge from the laid egg. The larvae have
three pairs of legs, 2 of which are well

developed and have 2 claws on each leg,

between which there is a shield. The larva

turns into an eight-legged nymph. It differs
from the adult tick in that there are no arcuate

lines on its skin. The nymph is mobile and

shedding its skin becomes an adult bee. It takes

11-16 days for a female tick to develop and

Acarapidosis of bees, prevention and

treatment measures

Rakhimov Mukhamad

Yunusovich

Veterinary Research Institute

AB

S

T

RAC

T

The article provides information on the prevention and treatment of varroatosis, which
occurs in bees and causes great economic damage. This disease is an invasive disease

that is acute and chronic. In the prevention of disease, it is advisable to ensure the zoo
hygienic conditions of the environment and the exchange of effective drugs against

diseases.

Keywords:

Varroatosis, mite, pyretroid, waxed cage, drug preparation,
medicine, disinfection.


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reach sexual maturity, and 10-13 days for a

male. The female is 2-3 times more numerous

than the male. The structures of the mouth are

adapted to pierce the tissues of the div and
feed it with hemolymph.

Ticks enter the bee through a pair of

thoracic trachea, a pair of thoracic stigmas. The

width of the thoracic stigmas provide access to
the passage of ticks. Access to the rest of the

stigmas is impossible because of the narrow

opening.

Ticks (larvae, nymphs, adults) can also

feed on its hemolymph by piercing the delicate

skin around the base of the bee's wing.

The tick is an endoparasite. It affects

only adult bees. Eggs, larvae and cocoons are
not damaged.

Epizootology:

The disease proceeds slowly.

From one infected bee, it takes 3-5 years to

infect 50% of the colony. The first signs of the
disease appear when the family is affected by

50% or more.

The affected family will not recover. If

left untreated, she will die sooner or later.

Symptoms and course of the disease:

The

disease is chronic, may be latent or overt. The

latent form can persist for several years after
infection of bee colonies. Such a hidden form

may not be detected even when examining all

colonies of a bee farm.

The manifest form of the disease

occurs much later, when a third, half or more

bee colonies are affected. The rate of transition

of the latent form of the disease to the open

form

is

influenced

by

environmental

conditions.

The disease is most common in

northern latitudes, where the climate is humid,
ranging from 70 degrees to 40 degrees.

(Uzbekistan is located at 41 degrees north
latitude and 69 degrees longitude).

Since Uzbekistan is also located at 41

degrees north latitude, the disease can be

prevalent in beekeeping.

Obvious signs of the disease often

appear when the bees begin to fly in the spring

after wintering, and in the summer after

prolonged rainfall and high humidity. Bees that

have flown out of diseased colonies fall to the

ground, and hundreds and thousands of bees

crawl around the hive. The wings of sick bees

are displaced, as if folded.

Diagnosis:

placed by viewing the anterior pair

of bee tracheae under a microscope. The

tracheae of a sick bee are perforated by mites
and the hemolymph is sucked out of them,

which turns first yellow, brown, and then black.

A. woodi mites are found in the trachea at

various stages of development (Figure 7).

Prevention.

Generally healthy colonies should

not include diseased bee colonies from
unhealthy farms. Unhealthy farms must be on a
strict list of veterinary authorities. The sale of

bee colonies or queen bees from such farms is

not allowed.

Every year, with the onset of the spring

season, bee colonies are checked for
acarapidosis. If there are so many bees flying

around the boxes that the bees flying out of the

hollow cannot fly, take 50 bees from 3-5

colonies on such a farm and send them to the
veterinary laboratory for research.

Measures

to

combat

acarapidosis:

Acarapidosis is a dangerous disease that cannot
be eradicated by treatment alone. Treatment is

only an auxiliary measure and does not

guarantee the full health of the farm. The

treatment method is partially effective, so the
treatment on the farm will need to be repeated

every year.

Since there is no modern perfect

method for diagnosing acarapidosis, it is

difficult to know exactly the degree of damage
to all families in the farm. When acarapidosis is

confirmed in one colony on a bee farm as a
result of laboratory tests, the suspicion of the

disease is put on all bee colonies on this farm.
In this case, in addition to this farm, quarantine

will be declared for beekeeping farms within a

radius of 5 km.

Quarantine is canceled after the

disappearance of the disease. Until the

complete elimination of the disease, the

boundaries of the spread of acarapidosis will

be determined, and all bee colonies on the


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border of the spread of the disease will be

destroyed.

Families of bees infected with

acarapidosis, isolated for death, are carried out
by fumigation with sulfur dioxide, taking into

account local conditions.

The elimination of acarapidosis is

primarily organized in areas or farms where
the disease has re-emerged.

Acarapidosis is treated in unhealthy

areas.


Treatment.

For the treatment of acarapidosis,

one of the following agents is used: folbex,

ethersulfonate, ethyl dichlorobenzilate, tedion.
For a single treatment of a family of 10 cells,
the bees spend the following: Folbex 0.5 g, for a

full course 4 g; analogue of ethersulfonate 0.3

and 2.4; tedion 1 and 10 g. Extra cells are

removed from the family before processing.

The family is limited by a spacer plywood that
is assembled in the middle of the box. Their top

and sides are covered with paper to prevent

the exit of bees, if there are holes under the

box, they are covered with wax, the hole where
the bees fly is reduced to 2-7 cm, depending on

the size of the family; weak families are

reunited.

All bee colonies are processed from

May to September. The full course of treatment
lasts 1.5

2 months. Folbex or ethersulfonate is

treated up to 8 times with an interval of 7 days

(after each examination). The course of

treatment is repeated in the early spring of the
next year.

For

treatment

with

Folbex,

moisture-proof paper (for example, filter

paper) is soaked in a 15% solution of
potassium nitrate and dried. The paper is then

soaked in folbex (or chlorobenzene or 4,4-

dichlorobenzilic acid ethyl ester). This paper is
dried again and cut into strips of 10 x 2 cm.
Each of these strips contains a medicinal active

ingredient intended for one family. Such a tape

is hung between the cells of the family, keeping

it burning (extinguishable in case of fire) at one

end. The family hive closes immediately. Folbex
smoke spreads inside the box, settles on the

chitinous skin of adult bees and is absorbed

into the trachea. Under the influence of smoke,

ticks die off.

Figure 1.

a) Acarapis woodi - female mite; b) mites in the trachea of bees with a latent form of the

disease; c) mites in the trachea of bees with an open form of the disease; d) twisting of bee wings in

the open form of the disease.


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Figure 2

.

Flucin 6.75 mg of the active ingredient, impregnated with 10x2 cm filter paper strips.

Figure 3.

Placing a paper tape from a fuming acaricidal filter that holds the copper device

The ethersulfonate is prepared on

filter paper or thin moistened cardboard

soaked in a 15% solution of potassium nitrate,

as well as using folbex. Each strip contains 0.3 g
of the active substance ethersulfonate. The

ribbon is hung at one end between family cells,

and its other end is lit. Tedion is used in the

form of tablets of 1 gram. A lit tablet is placed

on the side on the back wall of the bottom of
the box through the hole through which the
bees fly. This operation is repeated 10 times

with an interval of one day. A month after the

end of the course of treatment, 50 bees from
each severely affected colony are delivered to

the laboratory for research. In this case, if a bee

infected with a mite is found, the course of

treatment is repeated.

Also

highly

effective

against

acarapidosis are flucin, valine, ammonia, drugs

developed by scientists of the Research

Institute of Veterinary Medicine against

diseases of bees, varroatosis, American and

European rot, ascospherosis, aspergillosis.

1. Bees infected with the A. woodi mite

in the family die when soaked in 6.5 mg of filter

paper 10x2 cm in size due to the active

substance of the drug

Flucin

and are pushed

through the inlet and outlet of the bee colony.

The bee family is cleared of diseased bees, and
the drug does not work on healthy bees. The
smoke of paper not impregnated with the drug,

as well as the inclusion of the drug in the bee

colony and closing the outlet for 1 hour, does
not have a harmful effect on the bees.

2. All bees infected with Acarapis

woodi mites in the bee colony die during the

fourth treatment with an interval of 7 days by
soaking 15 mg of the active substance

Valine

in

paper strips 10x2 cm in size and introducing

them through the inlet and outlet of the bee


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colony, the bee colony is completely cleaned,

recover and develop rapidly.

3. When soaking with

Amikar

in the

hive by soaking 6.25 mg in a 10x2 cm filter
paper containing the active ingredient, bees

infested with Acarapus woodi mites in the bee

colony die and fall to the bottom of the box. In a

bee colony cleared of infected bees, the process
of infecting healthy bees with mites stops. The

drug does not have a negative effect on healthy

bees at the indicated dose (Figure 1-3).


Conclusions:

Disease Acarapidosis under any

storage conditions (strong family, good

nutrition in winter), methods and means used
in the treatment and prevention of other
diseases cannot guarantee the elimination of

acarapidosis in this farm.

Treatment of this disease requires

special medical methods and means. Inventory,

disinfection of hives and other measures can
prevent infection of bees with infectious

diseases. However, disinfection measures for

acarapidosis do not affect them.

Today,

all

remedies

against

acarapidosis are used by the fumigation

method, since the active substances must be

delivered to the parasites in the respiratory

tract of bees in the form of gas, vapor or
aerosol. At the same time, under the action of

the drug, healthy bees weaken, their life is

shortened. On the other hand, mite-infected

bees die as a result of the death of A. woodi
mites in their respiratory tract. Therefore, the

only way to prevent and cure the spread of this

disease is to kill and destroy all bees infested

with the mite.

Acarapidosis is a dangerous disease

that cannot be eradicated by treatment alone.

Treatment is only an auxiliary measure and
does not guarantee the full health of the farm.

The treatment method is partially effective, so
the treatment on the farm will need to be

repeated every year.

References:

1.

Davidov A.S. Problems and ways of

solving acarapidosis in beekeeping.

Journal "Zooveterinary", 2013, Issue 3

.

2.

Davidov, T. Katayseva, G. Uzakova.

Valine against varroatosis of bees.

Journal "Zooveterinary", 2012, Issue 2,

16 p.

3.

A.S.Davidov, G.P.Islamov. Epizootology

and economic damage from psoroptosis.

The role and perspective tasks of young

researchers in the development of
agricultural science and production.

Materials of the scientific-practical

conference

at

the

Samarkand

Agricultural Institute, part 1, 129 pages.

4.

Mavlanov S. Oripov A., Davidov O.,

Kataytseva T. Veterinary measures in

preparation for winter // Journal
"Agriculture of Uzbekistan", 2014, Issue
9, p. 12.

5.

Davidov

A.S.,

Dzhurakulov

O.K.

"Methods and means of preparing

disinfectant solutions in beekeeping"

Agronauka 3 (41), 2016, p. 25

6.

Davidov

A.S.,

Doskulov

V.M.,

Dzhurakulov O.K. Materials of the

International

Scientific

Conference

dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the
Veterinary

Research

Institute

"Medicinal plants against bee diseases",

Samarkand - 2016, pp. 86-88

7.

A.S.Davidov,

V.M.Doskulov,

O.K.

Dzhurakulov "Medicinal plants against

bee diseases" Veterinarian popular

scientific journal 2017, No. 4, pp. 39-40.

8.

Duskulov V.M., Davidov O.S., Isaev M.,

Dzhurakulov O.K. "The effectiveness of

local medicinal plants in the treatment

of bee diseases" Veterinary Medicine,

Issue 9, 2018. P. 33-35.

9.

Duskulov V.M., Elmuradov B., Meyliev M.
"Highly profitable sector of beekeeping"

Veterinary Medicine, Issue 12, 2018.

Author: Mukhamad Rakhimov, Head of

the Laboratory of Poultry and Bee Diseases

Amir Temur street 50

tel. +998995030654

Samarkand region, Taylak fortress
Veterinary Research Institute


Библиографические ссылки

Davidov A.S. Problems and ways of solving acarapidosis in beekeeping. Journal "Zooveterinary", 2013, Issue 3.

Davidov, T. Katayseva, G. Uzakova. Valine against varroatosis of bees. Journal "Zooveterinary", 2012, Issue 2, 16 p.

A.S.Davidov, G.P.Islamov. Epizootology and economic damage from psoroptosis. The role and perspective tasks of young researchers in the development of agricultural science and production. Materials of the scientific practical conference at the Samarkand Agricultural Institute, part 1, 129 pages.

Mavlanov S. Oripov A., Davidov O., Kataytseva T. Veterinary measures in preparation for winter // Journal "Agriculture of Uzbekistan", 2014, Issue 9, p. 12.

Davidov A.S., Dzhurakulov O.K. "Methods and means of preparing disinfectant solutions in beekeeping" Agronauka 3 (41), 2016, p. 25

Davidov A.S., Doskulov V.M., Dzhurakulov O.K. Materials of the International Scientific Conference

dedicated to the 90th anniversary of the Veterinary Research Institute "Medicinal plants against bee diseases", Samarkand - 2016, pp. 86-88

A.S.Davidov, V.M.Doskulov, O.K. Dzhurakulov "Medicinal plants against bee diseases" Veterinarian popular

scientific journal 2017, No. 4, pp. 39-40.

Duskulov V.M., Davidov O.S., Isaev M., Dzhurakulov O.K. "The effectiveness of local medicinal plants in the treatment of bee diseases" Veterinary Medicine, Issue 9, 2018. P. 33-35.

Duskulov V.M., Elmuradov B., Meyliev M. "Highly profitable sector of beekeeping" Veterinary Medicine, Issue 12, 2018.

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