Educational project and its essence

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Исакулова, Н. (2023). Educational project and its essence. in Library, 4(4), 6–15. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/34922
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Аннотация

This article analyzes the educational project and its content, types, and design approaches. In the context of globalization, education occupies an important place in the formation of qualities inherent in the comprehensive upbringing of the individual, perfect and competent specialist in it. Today's fast-paced era also presupposes the creation of the necessary conditions for arming students in the short term and with reasonable data, for the thorough assimilation of the foundations of various disciplines by them.

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ABSTRACT

This article analyzes the educational project and its content, types, and design approaches.

In the context of globalization, education occupies an important place in the formation of qualities inherent in the
comprehensive upbringing of the individual, perfect and competent specialist in it. Today's fast-paced era also
presupposes the creation of the necessary conditions for arming students in the short term and with reasonable data,
for the thorough assimilation of the foundations of various disciplines by them.

KEYWORDS

Author's methods, project, design, educational project, design approaches, educational telecommunications project,
Project method, stages of educational project activities.

INTRODUCTION

Today, the world is at the height of the search for ideas,
the creative imagination and the support for the use of
the styles of intellectual weapons of its development.
Nowadays, there are many types of such styles.

We cite the general characteristics of the styles that
are among the most well-known in the world and are

currently widely used in the system of education and
training, the search for new ideas, creative imagination
and the intellectual weapons of its development [1; 13
p.] (See Table 1):

The main results and findings

Research Article


EDUCATIONAL PROJECT AND ITS ESSENCE

Submission Date:

November 29, 2023,

Accepted Date:

December 04, 2023,

Published Date:

December 09, 2023 |

Crossref doi:

https://doi.org/10.37547/tajssei/Volume05Issue12-02


Nilufar Isakulova

Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences Professor of Uzbekistan State University of World Languages, Uzbekistan

Journal

Website:

https://theamericanjou
rnals.com/index.php/ta
jssei

Copyright:

Original

content from this work
may be used under the
terms of the creative
commons

attributes

4.0 licence.


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Table 1.

Authorship styles

Style

Invented

Author

State

Year

1.

Diagram Pareto

Italy

1897

V.Pareto

2.

Catalogue

Germany

1926

F.Kunse

3.

Morphological analysis

USA

1942

F.Svikki

4.

Synectica

USA

1944

V.Gordon

5.

Control questions

USA

1945

Dj.Poya

6.

Step-by-step analysis

Russia

1950

Y.Sobolev

7.

Isikavi style

Japan

1952

Kaoru Isikawi

8.

Organization of concepts

GDR

1953

F.Khazen

9.

Control questions

USA

1954

R.Crawford

10.

Invention matrices

USA

1954

A.Mol

11.

Discovery algorithm

Russia

1956

G.Altshuller

12.

Mental attack

USA

1957

A.Osborn

13.

Focal objects

USA

1958

Ch.Whiting

14.

Delphi

USA

1950-1960

Olaf Helmer, Norman Dalkey

N.Rescher

15.

Solution-oriented

Russia

1961

N.Sereda

16.

Engineering-price analysis

USA

1961

L.Miles

17.

Control questions

USA

1964

A.Osborn

18.

Seven - time search

USA

1964

G.Bush

19.

Rational construction

USA

1966

R.McGrory

20.

Functional design

Great Britain

1966

E.Metchett

21.

Delphi

USA

1966

O.Helmer

22.

Complex solution of problems

Chekhislovakia

1967

S.Vit

23.

Psychoeuristic programming

Russia

1968

V.Chavchanidze

24.

Control questions

Great Britain

1969

T.Eyloart

25.

Zinama-zina approach to the solution

USA

1969

A.Fraser

26.

Using the heuristic methods library

Russia

1969

A.Polovinkin

27.

Functional invention

Great Britain

1970

Team of authors

28.

Convention of ideas

GDR

1970

V.Gilde, K.Štarke

29.

Systematic heuristics

GDR

1970

M.Müller

30.

Canoe model

Japan

1970

Noriaki Kano

31.

Creatikan

France

1970

M.Dimor, X.Ebert

32.

Consumer price based consumption
analysis

Germany

1971

K.Thomas

33.

Search by decimal matrices

Russia

1972

R.Povileyko

34.

Systematic-logical approach to solving
invention issues

Russia

1972

V.Shubin


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35.

The style of necklaces of coincidences and
assassinations

Russia

1972

G.Bush

36.

Integrated"Metra

France

1972

N.Buven

37.

Berk eliminate situations

Great Britain

1972

Dj.Jones

38.

Systems transformation

Great Britain

1972

Dj.Jones

39.

Bichmarking

USA

1972

40.

Structured analysis

Russia

1973

G.Altshuller

41.

Modeling" with little people"

Russia

1974

G.Altshuller

42.

Fiklshsh's six hats

USA

1974

T.Gollway

The methods of searching for new ideas described
above are divided into three groups:

1.

Methods of psychological activation of

thinking.

2.

Systematized tracking styles.

3.

Directed tracking styles [1; 18-19 P.].

Methods of psychological activation of thinking can
include mental attack, reverse mental attack, shadow
mental attack, Kemal Council, focal object style,
synthetics, analogies methods, RVs opera, Conference
of ideas, small human beings, necklace of
assassinations and metaphorical six hats, coaching
styles.

A list of control questions, morphological analysis,
functional analysis, Metchett functional, focal objects,
necklace of associations and metaphors, multifaceted
sequential grading, synthesis of optimal forms, and
systematic economy, including structural and
elementary solutions, can include five types of why and
other similar styles.

Directed tracking styles include R.The introduction of
techniques such as the functional-physical style of
Keller sought-after constructivism, the theory of
solving Jody issues (TRIZ-IMEN).

Six Sigma, seven weapons of quality management, AVS
analysis, cost-effective production, control sheet,
Delphi,

scattered

diagram,

kinship

diagram,

relationship diagram, Pareto diagram, histograms,
Isikavi diagrams, control maps, Matrix, Kano Model,
outsourcing, parallel engineering development, spread
out, error protection, policy outcome analysis, AVS
benchmarking,

Taguti,

Policy

Analysis,

AVS

benchmarking, Taguti, stretch diagram, it is possible to
include stretch maps and other similar styles.

The project is a practical activity, the purpose of which
is to find new solutions developed as a package of
documents. The search process is a sequence of
opposite actions, and processes, which in turn involves
the use of certain methods. The complexity of the
project process (as well as other creative activities),
and non-standard design (life) situations require
knowledge of various methods and the ability to
master them [3].

Design is the process of determining the architecture,
components, interfaces and other characteristics of a
system or part of it. The result of the design project is
a complete set of models, features or features
described in a form suitable for the implementation of
the system.

Design requirements along with analysis are a large-
stage part of the system life cycle called System


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definition. The results of this stage are input data for
the implementation stage of the system. System
design aims to present a system in a purposeful,
principled, and purposeful manner; it involves
evaluation and decision-making on the choice of
system components that meet its architecture and
established constraints.

There is a strong tendency to view architectural and
detailed design as separate activities; attempts are
being made to identify them as separate practices, but
these types of design are largely interconnected.
Compared to" traditional " design solutions,

architectural solutions are considered more abstract,
conceptual and global; they focus on the highest-level
structures of the system. Extensive design is defined as
the process of expanding the initial project
(architecture) to the point where, in turn, it is fully
ready to detail and implement the project [5].

There are the following approaches to design:

functional design;

optimal design;

systematic design (see Table 2):

Table 2.

Design approaches

Design

approaches

The essence of design approaches

1.

Functional design

In systems used by any engineering object, it serves to perform one or another
function, in other words, the function is primary and the object is secondary. So, the
main task of the car is to transport goods and people, the main task of the pen is to
leave an ink mark on the surface (paper, etc.).), act as a book written information
carrier, etc.

2.

Optimal design

Functional design is the most general approach to describing systems. The boundary
conditions, the necessary inputs and outputs are determined, and a detailed list of
executable functions or operas is compiled. In functional design, the structure is
synthesized, the main parameters of the object and its components (elements)are
determined, the efficiency and quality indicators of the processes of activity are
assessed. The result of the design is, as a rule, basic, functional, kinematic,
algorithmic schemes and accompanying documents

3.

Systematic design

The design process should always take into account the interests of all major
stakeholders (stakeholders): customers, developers, manufacturers, vendors,
consumers, utilizers, etc. Each of the interested parties seeks to satisfy their needs,
some of which can come into conflict. For example, from the point of view of the
interests of various parties involved, a car should simultaneously have high speed
and motor power, low cost, convenience, environmental friendliness, be
technological in production, technically comfortable, easy to dispose of, ETC.

In a broad sense, design is the creation of a primary
description that allows you to create an object that

does not yet exist for certain specified conditions.
From Latin, the word "projectus" translates as "thrown


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forward". Textual records, computations and table
drawings are used for descriptions that can be
translated into a real object in the future, while
algorithms are used to represent a sequence of
Conditional Actions. In general, after detailed
calculations, additions and optimizations, the
description of the object becomes the basis for the
implementation of the idea [6].

Project method-processes (methods, processes,
algorithms, rules, studies) are used to implement
project characteristics, carry out Project Technical
Activities, and solve actions and project problems [7].

Today, the educational process also focuses on the
preparation of various educational projects by
students. So what is the training project itself? How is
the process of preparing educational projects?

A training project is a joint educational, cognitive,
creative or gaming activity of co-educational learners
who have a common goal, agreed methods and
methods of activity aimed at achieving a common
result in solving a problem relevant to the project
participants. It is the main form of Organization of
cognitive activity of learners within the framework of
the project method [8].

Educational telecommunications project, on the other
hand, has a common goal, is organized based on
information and communication technology resources

(for example, the Internet), students-partners are
aimed at achieving a common result for joint
education, knowledge creative, game activities,
agreed methods, methods of activity and solving any
problem that is important for project participants. An
example of such a project is the interdisciplinary
(foreign language+Informatics) "telecommunications
project".

The training project provides for:

1) the method of organizing independent educational
activities aimed at the search for problems, research
and solving of requirements, formalizing the result
(solution)in the form of a product;

2) educational action tool aimed at solving practical
tasks based on theoretical knowledge;

3) a didactic tool aimed at developing, educating,
educating, enriching knowledge, strengthening and
shaping skills.

The concept of "educational project activity" is also
used in the use of Project Education Technologies in
educational practice [2; p.110].

Educational project activity is a set of actions that are
consistently carried out by the educational person to
achieve the educational goal or solve a problem or
problem situation. The educational project activities of
students are organized at certain stages (see Figure 1):


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Figure 1. Stages of student educational project activities

The preparation of educational projects on various
topics by students on the basis of a couple, small
groups or a team takes place at the following stages:

1) project concept development

2) Organization of project activities;

3) planning project activities;

4) Solution of project tasks;

5) project (product)formalization;

6) Preparation of the report;

7) preparation of presentation;

8) project presentation, protection and evaluation;

9) reflection;

10) filing a report [2; p.111.].

A study project is an independent, detailed solution to
a problem of a research, creative or practical nature by

a student or group of students. The stages of creating
projects include:

choosing a problem;

goal setting;

setting goals;

information education;

formation of creative groups (on request);

internal group or individual work;

internal group discussion;

collective presentation [9].

According to the preparation of educational projects
by the content of activities, field of knowledge
(subjects), they are distinguished as follows (see Table
3:

S

t

a

g

e

s

Preparatory stage

Project completion stage

Closing stage

Introduction to the project, organization and

planning of project activities

(audience work)

Organization outside the auditorium

practical activities to do

Project presentation, assessment of student

activities, reflection of project

activities(audience work)


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Table 3.

Training projects

Training projects

Ўқув лойиҳа турлари

1.

According to the content of

the activity

Types of educational project
Informational projects
Research projects

2.

According to the field

(fields)of science

Practical projects
Mono project (a project carried out in one area of knowledge, science)
A project that is carried out in several areas of knowledge, science)



Each training project will belong to a specific
type according to its purpose and expected
result (see table 1.4):

Table 1.4.

Types of educational project

Training

projects

Ўқув лойиҳаларнинг мазмуни

Ўқув лойиҳанинг натижаси

1.

Informational

projects

Collecting

information

on

the

problem,

analyzing them, generalizing, elucidating the
essence, describing methods and means of
solving the problem, justifying their importance

2.

Research

projects


Implementation of the study, justification of the
problem explanation on the basis of the study,
justification of new problems for further
development

3.

Practical

projects

Development of methods and means of solving
the problem

Training projects are specific task, the result of which
will be the preparation of a simple product (m:
preparation of a technological map, some model, let's
say, the creation of a designer model. However, it

should also be noted that on the basis of the concept
of "project" there is not always an understanding of
any product on which the result of practical actions is
prepared. Because within the framework of the


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project, it is necessary to create a product on the basis
of creating ideas of a theoretical, practical and
methodological nature.

An important place in the preparation of educational
projects is occupied by the practice teacher. It is
charged with a number of duties. They are:

setting a specific topic, problem for the project work;

production of project assignments;

inclusion of project work in the study schedule;

preliminary development of the model of the project
process, adaptation of assignments to the capabilities
of students;

introducing students to project work;

keeping their practical activities in check [2; p.112].

The internship teacher must first prepare the following
materials and documents:

projects;

description of tasks related to the project;

reference questions regarding data collection;

information covering training targets [2; p.112].

In the project, the logic of activity is carried out in the
sequence of stages:

presentation of the project by the teacher (name,
topic, issue);

self-Statement of purpose and objectives;

organizing groups;

distribution of roles in groups;

method selection;

planning;

actually its implementation;

results presentation [2; 112 P.].

CONCLUSION

It can be carried out by the training project at the
following stages:

Stage 1-work on the project. The shortest, but most
importantly. The teacher is interested in the topic of
the project, describes the problem, focuses on the
problem, places, proposes, one or another angle of
consideration of the topic forms the problem. A
number of small problems are distinguished from the
problem as a whole, as a result of which the goals and
objectives of the project are determined.

Stage 2-organization, identification of activities when it
is necessary to ensure the division into groups, goals
and objectives of each group and each member
groups. At this stage, the project task on which it is
planned to work will be solved.

Stage 3-implementation of activities. The teacher is
a"little Observer". Children need to be taught what
they need in advance: for example, Interview
Questions to write, conduct a survey, process survey
results, chemical, biological and other research. When
children do not have enough knowledge, it's time to
present new material. "The hand should be on the
pulse" - impossible let the activity take its own half!

4 presentation stage-the completion of the work,
Analysis, self-assessment and evaluation, as well as the
demonstration of the results are carried out. What
learners prepare during presentation preparation is
called the product of project activities (drawings,


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posters, slideshows, videos, website, newspaper,
Almanac, costumes, etc.) [4].

Showing the main result of working on the main
project-activity analysis and presentation how to solve
the project problem. For example, it is not enough to
show a concert, it is necessary to explain how the
children came to it, why they chose it. Modern life
imposes high basic requirements on specialists, such as
understanding and adapting to the processes taking
place, communication, working in a team and critical
thinking, decision-making, and the ability to achieve
results.

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Sadikova,

S.,

&

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D.

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PEDAGOGICAL

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CLUSTER

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ACTIVITY

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Sadikova, S., & Sultanmuratova, Y. (2022). THE IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING STREET SAFETY TO CHILDREN IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTUTIONS. Science and innovation, 1(B7), 1519-1521.

Nasreddinova, K., & Sadikova, S. (2022). FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN A BILINGUAL ENVIRONMENT. Science and innovation, 1(B7), 1440-1444.

Sadikova, S., & Azamatova, D. (2022). PEDAGOGICAL INNOVATION CLUSTER OF ACTIVITY OF CENTERS IN PRESCHOOL EDUCATION. Science and Innovation, 1(7), 1138-1143.

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