Теоретико-методологические проблемы развития сферы услуг

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Урунбаева , Ю., & Уралов , Ш. (2024). Теоретико-методологические проблемы развития сферы услуг. in Library, 20(4), 116–123. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/35185
Юлдуз Урунбаева , Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса

Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса, доцент кафедры экономической теории, доктор философских наук по экономике

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Аннотация

В статье подчеркивается, что развитие сферы услуг является ключевым фактором социально-экономического развития страны.

Похожие статьи


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УДК: 415.263

ТЕОРЕТИКО-МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ

РАЗВИТИЯ СФЕРЫ УСЛУГ

Уралов Шохрухбек Аскаралиевич

Урунбаева Юлдуз Пирназаровна

Старший преподавател(PhD)

Самаркандский институт экономики и сервиса

Аннотация.

В статье подчеркивается, что развитие сферы услуг является

ключевым фактором социально-экономического развития страны.

Ключевые слова

:сфера услуг, уровень жизни, качество жизни, спрос,

потребление, сбережения, заработная плата, доходы населения.

THEORETICAL-METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF SERVICE SECTOR

DEVELOPMENT

Uralov Shoxruxbek Asqaraliyevich

Urunbayeva Yulduz Pirnazarovna

Abstract.

The article emphasizes that the development of the services sector is

a key factor in the socio-economic development of the country.

Key words

:service sector, living standards, quality of life, demand,

consumption, savings, wages, income of the population.

From the methodological point of view, all the nutrients consumed by the

human beings can be divided into two groups: nature conserved natural habits
prepared for human consumption, and produced in order to meet their needs,
affecting the nature through human economic activity and labor, ie, unwanted favors.
Therefore, it is desirable to have 2 types of natural resources and non - material
(economic) benefits in terms of the source of all human nutrition. This approach is
recognized in the economic theory from A. Smith's age.

However, theoretical research on the evolutionary changes taking place in the

proportion of natural and unnatural (economic

1

) nutrients in human consumption,

their general consumption, theoretical investigations on the causes, changes, and
effects of human consumption are ignored by economists.

At the initial stages of human development, human beings began to create

different products, effectively influencing the nature, feeling that they were not
enough to satisfy the necessities of life, not only of natural habits (land, water, air,
wild animals, trees, plants, etc.). The benefits of human labor over the centuries have
been compounded by quantity and quality. During the great historic period of human

1

Due to the fact that it is a product of human economic activity, it is possible to call it unrealistic economic benefits

.


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society, the proportion of the benefits created by human labor has grown steadily in
the total number of delicious ingredients it consumes. On the contrary, the share of
natural nutrients in the total consumption of human beings has gradually diminished.
More importantly, as the production capacities develop and the expansion and rising
of the human needs for various benefits, the share of the benefits created through the
use of labor increases gradually.

This economic phenomenon is the result of the interconnected development of

various economic, social, political, and cultural processes, and is ultimately reflected
in the improvement of human quality of life. On the other hand, natural prosperity
and quality improvement of every person, living in favorable conditions, full
satisfaction of his material and spiritual needs are the driving force of the
development and promotion of society and the power of the whole system of
economic activity. This natural desire, which is unique to human nature, represents its
essential interests.

There are natural and non - formal benefits in the consumption pattern.

Recognizing that each of them plays an important role in shaping people's living
standards, we will try to find out which of them is primary and which is of secondary
significance.

Of course, at the present stage of the development of society, one can not

imagine a lifestyle without stereotyped pleasures. On the surface, it seems unlikely
that natural and unnatural pleasures should be separated from the consumption and
living standards of a person, and that they can not be distinguished as being of
primary or secondary importance. But if we take a closer look at the problem, the
proportion of natural systems in the consumption system is low, but they are of
primary importance in maintaining human life.At the early stages of human
development, human beings enjoyed only the gifts they enjoyed. The legendary hero
RabinzonCruzo has been living on an empty island for only a few years, consuming
only natural flavors. However, it is difficult for a person to live without natural
flavors. More importantly, the economic benefits of production can not be achieved
without natural resources. We believe that this can be the basis for acknowledgment
of unnatural pleasure, which is the primary source of natural nutrition in human
consumption, the product of human labor.

As we have mentioned above, when production capacities develop and the

human capacity for economic activity is expanding, the uneven quality of production
grows continuously, its types grow and the quality is improved. As a result of
deepening of labor division at a certain stage of development, a new branch of
production of economic products - the production of services began to be formed.

Some services are known from ancient times and have been instrumental in

determining the lifestyle and lifestyle of the people at that time

2

. For example,

medical services, shopping, educational services, and various social services have

2

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Needs and prospects for improving living standards // "Problems of management and business

development" International Conference. - Samarkand: SamISI, 2008. pp. 187-188.


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been an important part of socioeconomic relations. But as an important branch of the
economy, it has emerged in later centuries and has attracted the attention of
economists.

The scientific views on the services had originally been formed in the works of

the classics of the theory of classical economics. In order to substantiate the essence
of the services concept and to distinguish them from the merit of the merchandise, all
the nutritional needs of the person are divided into two types: material gifts and
frivolous gifts. Theoretical physicist teaches that all services are considered to be
infinite, and in the history of science they laid the foundation for the scientific
understanding of services.

The great economist A. Smith (1723-1790) introduced the concept of

"productive work" and "inexhaustible labor" to solve the problem of revealing the
economic content of servicing entertainment as a source of social wealth of the
country. He believes that all kinds of labor, which produce material goods and
material blessings, are productive work that creates a new value. In contrast, the work
of those who are busy in serving, is in vain, and this work does not create a new
value, but serves to gain the value created in material production.

Along with mentioning the above-mentioned scientific points of view on the

importance of the modern science theory in this area, it should be admitted that it is
not worthy of scientific research to consider labor as a productive or productive work,
depending on the production of material goods or services. The Conception of the
productive and endless work that continues to date, which has brought the attention
of many economists to the attention of many former economists in the history of the
Soviet Union, has led to considerable scientific debate and controversy. First of all, it
can not serve as the basis for determining the essence of the concept of "Services",
the role of social enhancement or the role of the gross product. It is noteworthy that
any kind of nutrition that is necessary for human consumption, regardless of whether
material or non-material, should still be regarded as productive. The voiding of the
types of work related to the creation of the services leads to considerable drops, more
precisely, the degradation of the role of this sector in social and economic
development of the society.

It would be more appropriate for us to understand that any effort (whether

material or non-material) is an endless effort to achieve an end-effect of the economic
activity of an individual, that is to say good-bye. For example, if a porcelain dish
comes out of the packaging or transportation process, it still does not deliver to the
consumer, or if the production process goes unheeded, or goes out of the store
shelves without the buyer's purchase, then all the work done to produce and sell the
same blessing it can be viewed as inefficient or ineffective.

Whether or not the farmer plows the ground in the spring, but with no seeds

sprouting in the rain, it can be seen that every living and lifeless work spent on land
for the first time on land, planting, sowing seeds, It would be logical to use this
approach to be productive and productive in terms of productive and endless species.
There is an opportunity to carry out scientific and theoretical and practical research


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on the problem of reducing the share of labor that has not yielded any results for the
poor, poor, and the satisfaction of the population's nutrition in the social production
process

3

. The first of a proportion of productive labor and endless work is of great

practical significance, and its outcome is reflected in the increase of productivity of
social production.

The concepts and scientific views of classical economic doctrines on non-

material blessings and services have been further developed and enriched by research
by economist scientists. In particular, the English economist A. Marshall (1880-1959)
made a considerable, yet more logical, reasoning statement on the services and
eventually made a worthy contribution to the theoretical foundations of the service
industry. He interpreted the services as the undeniable results of the labor intuition,
the intuition of the labor force. In this regard, A. Marshall did not go far beyond the
ideas of classical economic doctrine, but suggested a number of progressive points in
explaining the role of services in the formation of social wealth. He focused on
proving that all the benefits are material and non-material, and that each of them is
equally important in shaping the social wealth in the country. It is not only a full
recognition of the vital and indispensable necessity of material gifts (natural gifts,
industries, and agricultural products, etc.) that satisfy the needs and needs of the
human being, but also the diversity of non - and that the benefits and services are of
great importance. In the way of life and the way of life, the material benefits are
increased for the person.

But it is also crucial for a person to live for the sake of his life, what country he

lives in, what country he lives in, the conditions in that country, the civil and military
security, the right to enjoy state-owned property and free education, and the right to
judicial protection. Therefore, according to A. Marshall, these blessings should also
be reflected in the evaluation of the social wealth of the country. From this scientific
point of view, A. Marshall has been able to develop the theories that are so well-
known in his discovery of the essence of social wealth.

Over the past period, the theory of service has always evolved and improved.

Towards the present stage of human development, the sphere of services has become
the leading network of many countries, especially in the developed economies. The
share of the services sector in the country's GDP is currently 70% in Japan, 78% in
Germany, and 80% in France. The growing role of science in increasing the
economic potential of this industry and increasing its role in addressing human needs
and shaping the standard of living. The scope and range of research services, their
essence, importance, development trends, causes and effects are widening.

Modern-day theoretical knowledge about the field of services has been

significantly narrowed down by their original imagination and scientific views about
them. The vast economic potential of the sphere of services today and its position in

3

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Services and Living Standards: Relationships and Prospects // Monograph.- Tashkent: Academy

of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Science, 2013. 144 p.


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the national economy and the theoretical knowledge of this field are the result of
evolutionary development of several centuries.

However, it should be noted that for many years, many researchers - scientific

researchers have concluded that the essence and the economic content of the services
have not been finalized, and that most of them have unanimously agreed on the
merits. In this article, we decided to refrain from dwelling on the analysis and detail
of the definitions given by various scientists, and we would like to summarize some
of our ideas on the essence of services between economists and scholars on diversity
of tariffs and instabilities. In our view, economists have tried to rely on the specific
features of production and consumption of this gift in the service description. For
example, a renowned economist, marketer F. Cotter, describes the services as: a
useful activity that does not allow any activity or blessing that may be invoked by one
party. The Polish economist O.Lange describes the services as: services that are
directly or indirectly linked to the satisfaction of consumers.

Of course, services also serve to meet certain human needs, such as

commodities; they are the product of human economic activity, such as merchandise;
they have the same value and value as commodities. From the scientific point of
view, there is no objection to that. However, in our opinion, the main criterion for
disclosing the essence of the concept of services and providing them with a scientific
definition is the role and importance of this industry in the development of human
reproduction and the development of personality, the distinctive features and signs
that distinguish it from other types of production and consumption. should be
followed.

In the formation of the theory of services, all the blessings have a profound

meaning in terms of material and non-material blessings, but also of vital importance
for the development of human society and the extensive reproduction. However, it is
possible for all the blessings not only to be material and non-material, but also to look
at their condition, depending on their place of consumption, in the presence of dark
and liquid, or, for example, the place of consumption at home and at home. Although
it is possible to differentiate the benefits according to these signs, it can not be
practically valid. There is no need for a theory that does not serve for practice.

The development of human society has led to a turning point in its life from the

moment a person has developed and consumed some services to meet his own needs.
From the point of view of timely prosperity, as mentioned above, the production and
consumption of secondary blessings began much earlier than the material benefits -
the use of primary nutrients.In the primitive community, people first produced and
consumed material nutrition through their own hands or the simplest work tools. At a
certain stage of society's development, some kinds of services, such as health
services, educational services, and some social services have emerged and developed
as a literary outcome of the development of production capacities.

The important aspect of the research is that during the historical period the

production of services has grown rapidly compared to the production of material
goods and, as we have already seen, they have become the main source of human


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satisfaction. Hence, the production and consumption of services in society is
governed by the law of faster growth than the production and consumption of
material goods. It means that human beings focus their attention on the production of
services, increase the share of services in its consumption and become a major factor
in shaping the quality of life.

By the 20th century, when science became direct production power, the

economy developed at unprecedented rates. The introduction of science and
technology achievements, and the continuous increase in labor productivity have
further enriched the potential of human economic activity. If all of these capacities
were intended to produce only material things, then there would be new serious
problems with society. More importantly, these opportunities were largely mobilized
to expand and develop the services sector.

In the 70s of the last century, economists have faced a major challenge: labor
productivity has grown dramatically, after a number of years, the number of people
employed in material production has to be reduced to 2 times or reduced by 2 times.
Scientists of the same period have made serious researches on how to use the free
time available due to the sharp decline in the working hours of the employed
population, and to reduce the amount of material production, and to find out how to
work for the unemployed, definitely The role of the services sector is unmatched in
solving this problem.

The emergence and development of the services sector as a cornerstone of the

development of production forces and the division of social division plays a
significant role in addressing a number of other issues facing the human society. Here
are

some

of

these,

in

our

view,

the

most

important

ones

4

.

Human nature is merely a unique characteristic. This is also a dissatisfaction. From
what Successes, achievements, accumulated wealth, position in society and so on.
This characteristic of human nature has a great positive and, at the same time, major
negative aspects, which are difficult to deny. The positive thing is that if this was not
the case in human beings, people would not have gone through the history of the
primitive community a lifetime. It is true that the feeling of dissatisfaction with
existing things is the driving force of the society, which is the driving force of
continuous socio-economic development. Its negative aspect reflects man's ambition,
his pursuit of career and wealth, his efforts to strengthen his position in the society,
and constantly expanding his economic activities. All this, ultimately, creates an
ecological situation threatening the immense balance of nature and the lives of
people.

As a manifestation of the dissatisfaction with human beings, which is reflected

in the law of continuous growth of needs, A.S.An example of Pushkin's famous
"Golden Fish" fairy tale. The content of the work can also be understood not only by

4

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Services and Living Standards: Relationships and Prospects // Monograph.- Tashkent: Academy

of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Science, 2013. 144 p.


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not grasping the essence of dissatisfaction, but also of the consequences of its
disastrous consequences. To explain the essence of human suffering, we would like
to make a statement of the great Greek philosopher Xenofont (430-355 AD): No one
had the money to the maximum of what he wanted. So, no matter how much money,
wealth, nodiv has ever considered it sufficient, and has sought to increase it further.

Growth of the quantity, volume and quality of services, and the growing

volume of purchasing services in the structure of consumer spending contributed to a
certain extent the growth of the role of non-material, non-economic and spiritual
potential. It indicates that the development of the society has a tendency to increase
the value of non-material blessings, that is, the role of services in shaping the living
standards of the population, which is the decline of their loyalty to things and things,
rather their diversity of services.

The transformation of many economical categories and concepts has changed

as a result of the transition of the world to industrial, and especially to the next
postindustrial developmental stages. At this stage, services have served not only to
satisfy the needs of people, but also as an important factor in the growth of the
broader reproduction and the national economy in general. One of the key features of
the subnational economic society is the achievement of the leadership role in the
sphere of services in the production of gross product and employment.
There is a serious methodological problem in assessing the potential, role and
significance of the services sector in shaping the economy and living standards of the
population. To solve this problem, you need to introduce and apply the concept of
gross services and pure services.

Gross services are the industry's total value of marketable goods produced

during certain period of time in industry networks and goods produced in material
industries, but sold through the services sector. That is, the value of the total cost of
services will be reflected in the value created by the population employed in branch
network.

Pure services are merely the value of the services rendered by the industry's

personnel and represent the real economic potential of the service sector. The higher
the share of net services in the structure of gross services, the higher the efficiency of
the population employment in this area. In order to determine the value of pure
services, the value of the total services will be deducted from the cost of finished
products

delivered

to

consumers

via

branch

network

offices,

that is: Sk = Yak- Tm

In this case:
Sk - pure services.
Yak - Gross services
Tm - Supply of consumers through industry networks finished product size.
In evaluating the economic potential of the sphere of services and the role of

the sector in shaping the living standards, it is desirable to use the purely clear
services. The higher the relative share of the net services in the GDP and the
consumer spending, the more rarely used rare and rare material resources, the more


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successful the solution to the problem of the active interaction with the nature in the
interests of the individual.

References

1.

The President of Uzbekistan,Sh.Mirziyoyev – ―The Year 2018 – the year of

proactive Entrepreneurship, Innovative Ideas and Technologies‖. – People’s word,
2017-y, December 23

2.

The First President of Uzbekistan, I.A.Karimov - Our main task is to

develop and advance the progress and prosperity of our motherland.-T.:Uzbekistan,
2010.- p.75

3.

Abdukarimov B.A. (2013). Trade economics.

4.

Akimov, A. V., & Dollery, B. (2006). Uzbekistan’s Financial System. An

Evaluation of Twelve Years of Transition. Problems of Economic Transition, 48(12),
6-31.

5.

Alegre, J., & Garau, J. (2010). TOURIST SATISFACTION AND

DISSATISFACTION. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 52-73. http://doi.org
/10.1016/j.annals.2009.07.001

6.

Bhatia, A. K. (2006). The Business of Tourism: Concepts and Strategies.

Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

7.

David Airey, & Myra Shackley. (1997). Tourism development in

Uzbekistan.

8.

Gurgen, E. (1999). Economic Reforms in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic,

Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (Т. 183). International monetary fund.

9.

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Services and Living Standards: Relationships and

Prospects // Monograph.- Tashkent: Academy of Sciences of the Republic of
Uzbekistan, Science, 2013. 144 p.

10.

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Needs and prospects for improving living standards //

"Problems of management and business development" International Conference. -
Samarkand: SamISI, 2008. pp. 191.

© S.A. Uralov, Y.P. Urunbayeva, 2020

Библиографические ссылки

The President of Uzbekistan,Sh.Mirziyoyev – ―The Year 2018 – the year of proactive Entrepreneurship, Innovative Ideas and Technologies‖. – People’s word, 2017-y, December 23

The First President of Uzbekistan, I.A.Karimov - Our main task is to develop and advance the progress and prosperity of our motherland.-T.:Uzbekistan, 2010.- p.75

Abdukarimov B.A. (2013). Trade economics.

Akimov, A. V., & Dollery, B. (2006). Uzbekistan’s Financial System. An Evaluation of Twelve Years of Transition. Problems of Economic Transition, 48(12), 6-31.

Alegre, J., & Garau, J. (2010). TOURIST SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 52-73. http://doi.org /10.1016/j.annals.2009.07.001

Bhatia, A. K. (2006). The Business of Tourism: Concepts and Strategies. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

David Airey, & Myra Shackley. (1997). Tourism development in Uzbekistan.

Gurgen, E. (1999). Economic Reforms in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan (Т. 183). International monetary fund.

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Services and Living Standards: Relationships and Prospects // Monograph.- Tashkent: Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Science, 2013. 144 p.

Urunbaeva Yu.P. Needs and prospects for improving living standards // "Problems of management and business development" International Conference. - Samarkand: SamISI, 2008. pp. 191.

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