Некоторые методы обучения последовательному переводу в ситуационных условиях

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Abduganieva Д. (2022). Некоторые методы обучения последовательному переводу в ситуационных условиях. in Library, 19(4). извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/11811
Jamilya Abduganieva, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков

Заведующая кафедрой теории перевода английского язык

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Аннотация

В статье анализируется игровой метод, как метод обучения последовательному переводу студентов старших курсов языкового вуза. В настоящее время возрастает роль переводчика как межкультурного посредника, что предполагает овладение студентами навыками переводческой деятельности в различных коммуникативных ситуациях. Упражнения-игры, представленные в статье, позволяют учителям моделировать разные типы переводческих ситуаций на уроке и способствуют готовности будущих переводчиков к осуществлению переводческой деятельности в реальных условиях межкультурной коммуникации.

Актуальность целенаправленного формирования у студентов навыков последовательного перевода обусловлена, с одной стороны, повышенными требованиями к профессиональной подготовке переводчика в условиях реформирования преподавания иностранных языков в вузах, а с другой - недостаточной систематическое обучение студентов этому важному виду переводческой деятельности. Для повышения эффективности обучения студентов языкового вуза последовательному переводу (ПС) необходимо использовать различные упражнения, учитывающие психологические особенности осуществления переводческой деятельности. Как утверждают специалисты-переводчики, специфика работы переводчика заключается в том, что ему часто приходится иметь дело с предметными областями, которые (с)хк далеки от него в силу его гуманитарно-лингвистического образования. Именно поэтому специалисты в области обучения устному переводу рекомендуют постоянно расширять свой кругозор, стараясь усвоить как можно больше специальной терминологии, связанной с различными отраслями и научными знаниями. Методы, описанные в статье, способствуют процессу развития умений учащихся и расширения их фоновых знаний.


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Uzbek State World Languages University

The problems of philology

ФМ

2019 Vol. 31 No. 4

METHODOLOGY

http://filolm.uz

Djamilya Abduganieva

Researcher, UzSWLU

SOME METHODS OF TEACHING

CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

IN THE SITUATIONAL CONDITIONS

ANNOTATION

The article analyses the game method, as a

method of teaching consecutive interpretation

of senior students of a language university. At

present, the role of the interpreter as an intercultural

intermediary is growing, that implies the mastery

of students’ skills in interpretation activities in

various communication situations. The exercises-

games presented in the article allow teachers to

model different types of interpretation situations

in the classroom and promote the willingness

of future interpreters to carry out interpretation

activities in real conditions of intercultural

communication.

The relevance of the purposeful formation

of students' skills in consecutive interpreting is

caused, on the one hand, by increased requirements

for professional training of an interpreter in the

context of reforming the teaching of foreign

languages at universities and, on the other hand,

insufficiently systematic teaching this important

type of interpreting activity to students. In order

to increase the effectiveness of teaching students

of a language university consecutive interpreting

(CI), it is necessary to use various exercises that

take into account the psychological characteristics

of undertaking interpreting activities. As the

practitioners of interpreting claim, the specifics

of an interpreter’s work is that (s)he often has to

deal with subject areas that (s)he is far from due

to his/her humanitarian linguistic education. That

is why specialists in the field of interpretation

training recommend constant expanding their

horizons, trying to learn as much as possible

special terminology associated with various

industries and scientific knowledge. The methods

Джамиля Абдуганиева

ЎзДЖТУ докторанти

ВАЗИЯТЛИ ШАРОИТДА КЕТМА-КЕТ

ТАРЖИМАГА ЎРГАТИШНИНГ АЙРИМ

УСУЛЛАРИ

АННОТАЦИЯ

Мақолада ОТМ юқори курс талабаларига

кетма-кет таржимани ўргатиш методик усули

сифатида ўйин методи таҳлилга тортилади.

Ҳозирда интермаданий воситачи сифатида

таржимоннинг роли ортиб бормоқда, бу эса

талабаларнинг турли мулоқот вазиятларида

таржима қила олиш маҳоратларини эгаллаш

-

ларини назарда тутади. Мақолада келтирил

-

ган ўйин-машқлар ўқитувчиларга аудиторияда

турли вазиятларни моделлаштиришга имкон

беради ва натижада бўлажак таржимонларнинг

реал шароитларда маданиятлараро мулоқотни

амалга ошириш малакаларининг шакллани

-

шини таъминлайди.

Талабаларнинг кетма-кет таржима қилиш

малакасини мақсадли шакллантиришнинг

долзарблиги бир томондан, университетларда

хорижий тилларни ўқитишни ислоҳ қилиш

шароитида таржимоннинг касбий тайёргар

-

лигига бўлган талабларнинг ортиши ва бошқа

томондан, талабаларга ушбу муҳим таржима

қилиш фаолиятини етарлича тизимли равиш

-

да ўргатиш билан боғлиқлигида кўринади.

Тил ўқитиладиган ОТМ талабаларига кетма-

кет таржима қилишни ўргатиш самарадор

-

лигини ошириш учун таржима қилишнинг

психологик хусусиятларини ҳисобга олувчи

турли машқлардан фойдаланиш лозим. Тар

-

жимоннинг ўзига хос хусусияти шундаки, у

ўз соҳасини яхши билиши билан биргалик

-

да бошқа соҳалардан ҳам хабардор бўлиши

керак. Мақолада тавсих этилаётган методик

усуллар таржимон мутахассислиги талабала

-

рига кетма-кет таржима бўйича кўникма ва

малакаларни эгалашларига ёрдам беради.


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described in the article contribute to the process

of developing students’ skills and expanding their

background knowledge.

Key words:

consecutive interpreting,

theory of translation, interpreter, game methods,

conference interpreting, learning process, teaching

interpretation, native speakers, speech activity,

bilingualism, business game.

Калит сўзлар:

кетма-кет таржима, тар

-

жима назарияси, таржимон, ўйин усуллари,

анжуманлар таржимаси, ўқув жараёни, таржи

-

мага ўқитиш, тил соҳиблари, нутқ фаолияти,

билингвизм, ишбилармонлик ўйинлари.

INTRODUCTION

The subject of the theory of interpretation training seems to be one of the most

important disciplines during the work of an interpreter. In daily work, one has to

deal with the question of choosing an interpretation method for adequate message

transmission, stylistic coloring, and emotional features of the text. For the quality

performance of their work, interpreters need both in-depth knowledge in the field of

translation theory and excellent practical skills. This article focuses on some transla

-

tion training methods and exercises to improve translation skills. The game method

of teaching consecutive translation is more detailed described in this paper; exercises

for learning are considered.

In the process of organizing CI training, it is necessary to be guided by the goals

that are achieved through practical training with the help of exercises. The aim of our

methodology is the formation of the interpretation competence of a consecutive inter

-

preter; therefore, the set of exercises used in the learning process should be aimed at

developing and improving all the components of this competency.

When learning CI through exercises, certain speech skills are also mastered.

We mean the actions of perceiving and processing the message that is, listening in

a source language and the actions for formulating and generating translated text in a

target language that is, speaking in one’s native language.

LITERATURE REVIEW

In the light of the new education paradigm, oriented to the principles of the

Bologna process, the global goal of training interpreters is to form a professional com

-

petence of a specialist in the process of developing his/her potential and disclosing

personal resources. A professional competence is interpreted as a hierarchical system

of interacting and complementary competencies.

Among the key professional competences of an interpreter, the new Federal

State Educational Standard distinguishes knowledge of the methodology to be pre

-

pared for the interpretation. Within this article, we will consider the specifics of the

work on conducting effective preparation for the interpretation situation, as well as

focusing on the organization of training for this activity in the educational process.

Thus, by interpreting we mean types of professional interpretation, providing

for verbal (sound or sign) transmission of an oral message from one language to an

-

other (Alikina, 2010).


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The program for training of bachelors of linguistics in the "Translation Criti

-

cal Studies" profile involves mastering such types as sight translation and consecu

-

tive interpretation, each of which is characterized by a number of temporal, spatial,

technical, stylistic, and substantive features. The focus of our research interest is on

consecutive interpretation as a form of interpreting conference at breaks, which is an

interpretation of dialogue at major international meetings using two or more foreign

languages.

According to D. Gile's definition, conference interpreting involves replacing a

speech of a high formal and conceptual level in the source language with a speech in

the target language of the corresponding level and integrity (Gile, 1995).

As for the spatio-temporal organization of the work of an interpreter, it is char

-

acterized by the “here and now” formula; however, the success of the interpretation

process is largely determined by the effectiveness of the preliminary training. Accord

-

ing to J. Choi (Choi, 2005), this aspect of the interpretation profession is fundamental,

but often underestimated, and sometimes causing confusion on the part of the custom

-

er. Nevertheless, as far back as 1952, J. Herbert, the author of the first textbook on in

-

terpretation, wrote, that preliminary training was evidence of the professionalism and

integrity of the interpreter (Herbert, 2001). It is the preparatory work that helps ensure

high quality interpretation: “Preparation is half the battle. When you are prepared,

even if you do not understand the phrase or paragraph, you will always know what

is at stake, and you can find a wording that fits well with the context ”(Walter,2001).

In order to achieve a decent level of training, as J. Choi rightly observes (Choi,

2005), an interpreter is required to have a high level of “intellectual curiosity” that

would encourage him/her to be interested in various fields of knowledge necessary

in professional practice. The developed motivation to replenish thematic knowledge

should be complemented by the extensive general culture of an interpreter, which can

facilitate the process of preparing for the interpretation.

Despite the fact that simultaneous interpretation is recognized as the most stress

-

ful type of interpretation, in the process of performing other types of interpretation an

interpreter also experiences powerful psychological pressure. In a situation of consec

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utive interpretation, stressful and “energy-consuming” factors are a long time in pub

-

lic, a high level of formality, the amount of information received for perception (up to

7 minutes), high information richness, a detailed statement in the target language, and

dependence on the sound of the speaker's speech (tempo, volume, emphasis), the need

to adapt to the speaker's pauses, standing work, simultaneous performance of various

actions (listening and writing fixation, reading notes and speaking phenomenon), lags

in the record due to the search for a suitable character or abbreviation, the use of a

microphone (Choi, 2005).

As noted in the experimental studies of D. Gile (Gile, 1995a), even profession

-

als with great experience and excellent reputation have difficulties, not only when

translating technical, information-rich messages with a high pace of speech, but also

when translating relatively simple presentations on general topics. One of the causes

of these problems is the insufficiently arrenged preparations for the interpretation.


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DATA ANALYSIS

When planning any lesson, a particular difficulty is the problem of selecting

means and teaching methods that are adequate to the subject being studied. Teaching

methods are “ways of joint activities of teachers and students aimed at solving learn

-

ing problems” (Vinogradov, 2001).

When teaching interpretation, the most effective methods are the following:

• reproductive methods (business role-playing games);

• research methods (independent work of students, work with reference books);

• perceptual methods (video lessons, meetings with representatives of Russian-

speaking countries);

• logical methods (“language exercises”, “case study” or analysis of certain situ

-

ations).

Interpretation differs from other types of speech activity not only in the sense

that it is carried out in conditions of bilingualism. The use of a foreign language vo

-

cabulary in various forms of speech activity creates the need for students to enhance

knowledge, facilitates the process of "entering" into professional activity, and pro

-

vides opportunities for mastering the specialty in more complex models of production

processes.

In the learning process, all knowledge is reproduced. The necessary strength

of assimilation is ensured by repeated revision of knowledge. Students' reproductive

activities must necessarily be combined with creative activities. Business relations

always require a creative approach to their implementation.

A business game is a form of reconstructing the objective and social content of

a future professional activity of a specialist, modeling the relation systems that are

characteristics of this activity, modeling professional problems, real contradictions

and difficulties experienced in typical professional problem situations.

Often, in practical classes of a foreign language, such a technique of indepen

-

dent work of students is used as working with a text. The same technique is very ap

-

propriate and effective in teaching interpretation.

You can work with a text at the lesson as follows:

Students quickly look through the text to get the direction on the correct per

-

ception of the content of the text during subsequent reading. Viewing time is 3-5

minutes. Then proceed to a special type of a text interpretation under the guidance

of a teacher: students perform interpretation aloud; during the interpretation process,

the connections of words, their subordination or primacy and interaction based on

certain external attributes are automatically detected. With such an interpretation, a

student can predict words previously unknown to him/her, based on the syntactic and

logical-semantic relations of the text. The whole process of mental operations takes

place “openly”, which makes it possible to immediately correct the reader’s incorrect

actions. Working on the text, students learn to determine the topic of the text by key

words and fragments, master the techniques of the so-called “compression” of the

text, generalization of the content. Independent work with this approach is aimed at

expanding the vocabulary, which is ensured by its intensive repeatability both in ad

-


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ditional texts and in lexical and grammar exercises. All tasks involve the active use

of language tools. This way, students are trained to extract, synthesize and analyze

professionally relevant information.

Thus, one of the most effective ways to implement an independent form of or

-

ganization of educational activity is differentiated individual tasks that free students

from mechanical work and can significantly increase the amount of effective indepen

-

dent work with less time.

Perceptual methods are methods of organizing and implementing the sensory

perception of educational material. A video lesson is one of the perceptual methods.

During such lessons, interpretation skills are developed. After viewing a small part of

the text, students translate it. Errors are immediately indicated and discussed, and the

interpretation is corrected. Thus, each student can try himself/herself as an interpreter.

It should be noted that video-clips or excerpts from them should be selected on a

professional topic. While watching video-clips, active comprehensive training is car

-

ried out, namely: memory training, language-to-language switching training, tempo

training, and vocabulary work.

The video method includes educational and upbringing functions, which is due

to the high efficiency of the impact of visual images. The information presented in a

visual form is the most accessible for perception; it is absorbed more easily and faster.

Meetings with representatives of English-speaking countries are undoubtedly

an effective method in the process of teaching interpretation. During such meetings,

students have an opportunity to communicate with native speakers, can join their

culture and traditions. Such meetings help students to overcome the language bar

-

rier, adapt more quickly to different communicative situations, and make the right

decisions in a timely manner. And also such meetings force students to activate their

vocabulary both on everyday topics and on professional ones.

We attributed to logical methods, language exercises of pre-interpretation and

interpretation nature, providing the formation of interpretation skills. This set should

include exercises to overcome interpretation difficulties, to compare different inter

-

pretation options and analyze interpretation errors, to rephrase and interpret the source

text and the text of the interpretation, to translate oral and written speech. The es

-

sence of the exercises, during which interpretation correspondences are introduced

and fixed, is reduced to the fact that on the material of the same texts containing the

most common vocabulary, various types of interpretation and retelling are performed

as many times as necessary for a sufficiently solid assimilation of interlanguage cor

-

respondences. Monotony is overcome by setting a different task each time.

Without properly organized exercises, it is impossible to master educational and

practical skills.

Another method that should be attributed to the group of logical methods is

a “case study” or analysis of a specific situation. The method of analyzing a spe

-

cific situation should be combined with the reproductive method, i.e. by the role-play

method, after which there is a discussion of students' work done, errors are analyzed,

the corresponding conclusions are made, or with the perceptive method, when after


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watching the video material, a discussion with analysis of the specific situation also

takes place. Thus, students learn from their own and others' mistakes.

Game method as a method of teaching consecutive interpretation

Recently, in many areas of science there has been a restructuring of practical

and working methods, in particular, various kinds of games are becoming more wide

-

spread (Alekseeva, 2004). The game method is sometimes used when learning con

-

secutive interpreting. The lesson simulates the situation of interpretation: for exam

-

ple, an interview or a conversation between two foreigners through an interpreter. As

"speakers" for training native speakers are usually involved. To control the interpreta

-

tion process, at least two teachers must participate in the lesson. The topic and key

issues, as well as issues that will be discussed in “negotiations” or “interviews,” are

prepared in advance. Such classes are extremely useful for developing interpretation

behavior, interpretation tactics and didactic as a model of the communication situa

-

tion through the interpreter: you can really feel the consequences of the interpreter’s

mistakes and observe what their result may be. However, in interpreter training sys

-

tems, this method is not often used, since it requires large teaching costs. And if the

interpreter was able to participate in several such classes – his/her happiness. This will

facilitate his/her entry into professional activities.

The training possibilities of using the game method have been known for a long

time. Many scholars involved in teaching foreign languages rightly drew attention to

the effectiveness of using the game method (Bao, 2015). This is due to the fact that the

game manifests itself especially fully, and sometimes unexpectedly, of the ability of

any person. The psychological mechanisms of game activity are based on the funda

-

mental needs of the individual in self-expression, self-affirmation, self-determination,

self-regulation and self-realization.

In human practice, gaming activity performs the following functions:

• entertaining;

• communicative;

• diagnostic (identification of deviations from normative behavior, self-knowl

-

edge during the game);

• game therapy (overcoming various difficulties encountered in other types of

life);

• self-realization (manifestation of abilities and hidden opportunities);

• interethnic communication (assimilation of the same sociocultural values for

all people);

• socialization (inclusion in the system of public relations).

The game method in teaching consecutive interpretation is used in the following

cases:

1) as an independent method for the development of a certain topic;

2) as elements (sometimes very significant) of some other methods.

The game always involves certain stresses of emotional and mental forces, as

well as decision-making skills. The desire to solve these issues exacerbates the mental

activity of the players. A positive fact is that a student also speaks a foreign language.


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It follows from this that the game method is fraught with rich learning opportunities.

A feature of the game method is that everyone in the game is equal. It is feasible

for almost every student, even one who does not have sufficiently strong knowledge

of the language. Moreover, a student who is weak in language training may become

the first in the game: resourcefulness and quick wit here are sometimes more impor

-

tant than knowledge in the subject. A sense of equality, an atmosphere of enthusiasm

and joy, a sense of feasibility of tasks – all this makes it possible for a student to

overcome the shyness that interferes with freely using the words of a foreign language

in speech, the fear of mistakes is reduced, and has a beneficial effect on learning out

-

comes. Language material is imperceptibly assimilated, and at the same time a feeling

of satisfaction arises, a student can already speak along with everyone.

The objectives of the game method in teaching consecutive interpreting

The use of the game learning method contributes to the achievement of impor

-

tant methodological goals, such as:

• creating a student’s psychological readiness for a verbal communication;

• ensuring the natural need for their repeated language material;

• student training in choosing the right speech option, which is a preparation for

situational spontaneity of speech in general.

The implementation of gaming techniques and situations occurs in the main

areas:

• the didactic goal is set to students in the form of a game task;

• educational activities are subject to the rules of the game;

• educational material is used as its means; an element of competition is intro

-

duced into educational activity, which translates the didactic task into a game one;

• successful completion of the didactic task is associated with the game result.

Types of games

The place and role of the game method in the educational process, the combina

-

tion of game elements and teachings, largely depend on the teacher's understanding of

the functions and classifications of various kinds of games.

Games are divided by type/activity into: 1) physical (motor); 2) intellectual

(mental); 3) labour; 4) social; 5) psychological.

By the nature of the pedagogical process, the following groups of games are

distinguished:

1) educational, training, controlling, generalizing;

2) cognitive, educational, developing;

3) reproductive, productive, creative;

4) communicative, diagnostic, career guidance, psycho-technical.

By the nature of the game’s technique, the games can be divided into: 1) subject,

2) story, 3) role-playing, 4) business, 5) imitation; 6) dramatization games.

The specificity of the game learning method is largely determined by the gam

-

ing environment: they distinguish between games with and without objects, table-

room, on-site, computer, as well as with various means of transportation.

If we consider the game in terms of a target orientation, then in this case we can


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divide the games into:

1. Didactic, which is used to expand one's horizons and cognitive activity, they

form certain skills necessary for practical activities, in the course of their implementa

-

tion, general educational skills and work skills are developed.

2. Educators who instill independence, will, cooperation, collectivism, sociabil

-

ity and communicativeness, form certain approaches and positions, moral, aesthetic

and worldviews.

3. Developing, which develop the motivation of educational activity, attention,

memory, speech, thinking, imagination, creativity, empathy, reflection, the ability to

compare, contrast, find analogues, optimal solutions.

4. Socializing, introducing to the norms and values of society, adapting to the

conditions of a certain environment, teaching communication.

The place of the game in the lesson and the time allotted to the game depend on

a number of factors: the preparation of students, the material studied the specific goals

and conditions of the lesson, etc. Games can be grammar, lexical, phonetic, spelling

ones. All of them contribute to the formation of speech skills.

Training students to use grammatical structures, which requires their repetition,

tires students with their uniformity, and the effort spent often does not bring quick

satisfaction. The use of game teaching methods will help to make boring work more

interesting and exciting.

Quality control of interpretation activity is carried out during exercises-games

(listening to student translations during reading, translation). In addition, students re

-

cord their translations on the recorder. Materials are used to verify, analyze, compare

and process the results of experimental training.

In accordance with the peculiarities of the CI implementation, it seems to us

necessary to identify the stages of mastering the CI and sections of exercises to achieve

certain goals at various stages.

Advanced CI training should be preceded by an introductory theoretical les

-

son, the purpose of which is to acqunint students with brief information about the

psycholinguistic features of CI and its components, psychophysiological skills (stress

resistance, loudness and clarity of speech, good memory, clear perception of hearing).

Here we demonstrate how to achieve the main goal of the course – the implementa

-

tion of CI at an advanced level, i.e., exercises to teach CI and methods for assessing

students' performance of exercises.

The same game can be used at different stages of the lesson. But it all depends

on the specific working conditions of a teacher, his/her temperament and creative abil

-

ities. It should be noted that with all the attractiveness and effectiveness of the game

method, it is necessary to observe a sense of proportion; otherwise the games will tire

students and lose the freshness of the emotional impact. The success of using games

depends on the atmosphere of the necessary verbal communication that a teacher cre

-

ates in the classroom. It is important that students become accustomed to such com

-

munication, get carried away and become participants in this process together with

a teacher. Confidence and ease of communication between a teacher and students,


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arising due to the general gaming atmosphere, makes students have serious conversa

-

tions, discuss any real situations, since a foreign language lesson is not only a game.

Experience convinces that the use of the game-based learning method contributes to

the development of cognitive activity of students in language learning.

It is necessary to stop on a role-playing game. Role play is used to solve com

-

plex tasks of assimilation of new material, consolidation and development of creative

abilities, as well as for the formation of general educational skills. It provides an op

-

portunity for students to understand and study the teaching material; different posi

-

tions.

The structure of the game as a process includes:

a) the roles assumed by the players;

b) game actions as a means of undertaking these roles;

c) game use of objects, i.e. replacement of real things with a game, conditional;

d) real relations between the players;

d) the plot (content) – the area of reality, conditionally perceived in the game.

The teacher’s task is to select the necessary situations-illustrations and situa

-

tions-problems on a specific material, prepare didactic material: task cards for each,

select groups of students and assign roles, set a task by which students should express

their point of view, think over expected answers and remarks, show interest and atten

-

tion to students during the game.

The listed games are aimed at developing the ability to carry out CI with a spe

-

cific combination of actions and operations and the ability to distribute attention (the

ability to make decisions and make speeches in TL without the active participation of

consciousness).

The role-playing technology consists of the following steps:

1. Stage of preparation. Preparation of a role-playing game begins with the de

-

velopment of a scenario – a conditional display of a situation and an object. Then a

game plan is drawn up. The teacher should have a general description of the game

procedure and clearly present the features of the characters.

2. Stage of explanation. At this stage, the game is being introduced, the orienta

-

tion of the participants, the definition of the operating mode, the wording of the main

purpose of the lesson, and it is also necessary to justify the statement of the problem

and the choice of a situation. Issued in advance prepared packages of necessary ma

-

terials, instructions, rules. If necessary, students seek help from the teacher for further

clarification. The teacher should set students on the fact that they can’t be passive

about the game, violate the rules and ethics of behavior.

3. Stage of the process of the game. At this stage, students play the situation they

have proposed, performing certain roles.

4. The stage of analysis and generalization. At the end of the game, the teacher

together with students conducts a generalization, i.e. students exchange opinions on

what, in their opinion, has turned out, and on what else it is worth working. In conclu

-

sion, the teacher notes the results achieved, notes the mistakes, formulates the final

result of the lesson. In the analysis, attention is drawn to the correspondence of the


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used simulation with the corresponding area of the real situation.

Pros and cons of the game method

The significance of the sight translation for mastering the skills of simultaneous

interpretation and for real interpretation practice seems to us obvious. Sight transla

-

tion helps the brain tune into “multitasking”: one section is busy searching for infor

-

mation, another is predicting and so on. In other words, students learn to distribute

attention between several tasks, as happens with simultaneous interpretation. Predic

-

tion in sight translation is usually understood as predicting the author’s thoughts. But

at the same time there is a risk of guessing incorrectly, the risk of error, as well as the

risk that completing the interpretation before the speaker is silent, will become a habit.

In fact, forecasting provides an interpreter with a margin of time to optimize both the

forecasting process itself and the processes of analysis, understanding of the text, and

phrase construction. This is a complex mechanism that deserves more detailed con

-

sideration. Sight translation allows students to develop the necessary speed of reaction

when searching for an equivalent from a “working” vocabulary, teaches them to clear

-

ly formulate a thought (choosing a suitable synonym, skillfully structuring a phrase).

If a sight translation is recorded, then this makes it possible to listen to oneself,

gradually getting used to one’s own voice, which is extremely important for current

self-control (for repetition, poor diction, reservations, etc.). In addition, regular les

-

sons of sight translation increase the endurance of a future interpreter.

It is important to put students in real interpretation situations in the learning

process, which require the ability to quickly find information in the text, viewing it

vertically or diagonally, noting for themselves fragments containing precision infor

-

mation, such as a quote or numbers.

It seems that the sight translation combines the maximum of principles that

are important for an interpreter; the list is not exhaustive and can easily be supple

-

mented. Students who successfully cope with the sight translation usually do not have

problems with simultaneous interpretation. Some interpreters regularly perform it for

training, preparing for the conference, or just before entering the booth.

Although sight translation is still rarely used in training sessions, this is a very

useful exercise for future interpreters at all stages of training. A thoughtful, compre

-

hensive approach to this discipline will allow a teacher to deepen its subject con

-

tent and pass on his/her professional experience to students, while improving his/her

qualifications.

CONCLUSION

The subject of the theory of translation training seems to be one of the most

important disciplines during the work of a interpreter. In daily work, one has to deal

with a question of choosing a translation method for adequate message transmission,

stylistic coloring, and emotional features of the text. For the quality performance of

their work, interpreters need both in-depth knowledge in the field of translation theory

and excellent practical skills.

In this article we analyzed the concept of interpretation, its basic principles,


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teaching methods and types. In more detail in this paper the most effective methods

of teaching consecutive interpretation are described, game methods for teaching in

-

terpretation and types of games are considered. The game method as an independent

method of teaching interpretation was formed relatively recently. Often, the method

is positioned only as an effective exercise in teaching interpretation. The term “game

method” is understood to mean the type of activity in the conditions of situations

aimed at recreation and assimilation of social experiences in which self-management

by behavior develops and improves. Some interpreters of international organizations

(for example, the UN, WB) find the game method useful for enhancing skills and ac

-

celerating the pace of work.

There are different opinions about the game method of teaching consecutive

interpretation. Some teachers consider the game method of teaching interpretation

effective, they believe that exercises should be close to the realities of interpretation

activity. Others are adherents of classical teaching methods.

The significance of the game method for mastering consecutive interpreting

skills and for real interpretation practice seems to us obvious. The game method helps

the students navigate in an unfamiliar situation, increases students’ motivation and

gives them more confidence in their work.

Although the game method is still rarely used in training sessions, it is a very

useful exercise for future interpreters at all stages of training. A thoughtful, compre

-

hensive approach to this method will allow a teacher to deepen a subject content and

pass on his/her professional experience to students, while improving his/her qualifica

-

tions.

REFERENCES

1. Alekseeva, I.S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie. / I.S.Alekseeva.– SPb.: Filologicheskij fakultet

SPbGU: M.: Izdatelskij centr «Akademiya», 2004. – p. 352

2. Alikina, E. V. Vvedenie v teoriyu i praktiku ustnogo posledovatelnogo perevoda: uchebnoe

posobie [Tekst] / E. V. Alikina. – M.: Vostochnaya kniga, 2010. – 192 s.

3. Bao, Chuanyun. 2015. Pedagogy. The Routledge handbook of interpreting, ed. HollyMikkelson,

andRenéeJourdenais, 400–416. London: Routledge.

4. Barhudarov, L.S. Yazyk i perevod (Voprosy obshej i chastnoj teorii perevoda) / L.S.Barhudarova.–

M.: «Mezhdunar. otnosheniya», 1975. – p. 240

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Mezhdunar. otnosheniya, 1976. – p. 264

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l’Internet [Электронныйресурс] / J. Choi. – 2005. – Режим доступа:

http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/019862ar (дата обращения 30.11. 19).

7. D. Gile. – Lille: Presse Universitaire de Lille, 1995b. – 280 p.

8. Efremova, T.F. Novyj slovar russkogo yazyka. / T.F.Efremova.– M.: Drofa, 2000. – p. 1233

9. Fedorov, A.V. Osnovy obshej teorii perevoda (lingvisticheskie problemy) / A.V.Fedorov.– M.:

Vysshaya shkola, 1983. – p. 303

10. Florin, Sider. Muki perevodcheskie / Sider Florin.– M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1983. – p. 183

11. Galeeva, N. L. Osnovy deyatelnosti: teorii perevoda / N.L.Galeeva. – Tver: Izd-vo Tverskogo


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un-ta, 1997. – p. 80

12. Garusova, E.V. Interpretativnye pozicii perevodchika kak prichina variativnosti perevoda. Dis.

kand. filol. nauk. / E.V.Garusova. – Tver: TvGU, 2007. – p. 173

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Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing company, 1995a. – 283 p.

14. Gile, D. Regards sur la recherche en interprétation de conférence [Текст] /

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Herbert. – Genève, 1952. – 113 p.

16. Komissarov, V.N. Obshaya teoriya perevoda (Problemy perevodovedeniya v osveshenii

zarubezhnyh uchenyh) / V.N.Komissarov. – M.: CheRo, 1999. – p. 134

17. Lefevere, A. Translational practice and the circulation of cultural capital: Some aeneids in

English // Constructing cultures. Essays on literary translation / Ed. S. Bassnett. / A.Lefevere.

– London: The Cromwell Press, 1998. – P. 55-62.

18. Minyar-Beloruchev, R. K. Kak stat perevodchikom? / R.K.Minyar-Beloruchev.— M.: Gotika,

1999. — p. 176

19. Parshin, A.N. Teoriya i praktika perevoda / A.N.Parshin. – M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1995. – p. 167

20. Reiss, K. Klassifikaciya tekstov i metody perevoda // Voprosy teorii perevoda v zarubezhnoj

lingvistike / Pod obsh. red. V.N. Komissarova / K. Rajs. – M., 1978. – pp. 202-228

21. Shiryaev, A. F. Sinhronnyj perevod, deyatelnost sinhronnogo perevodchika i metodika

prepodavaniya sinhronnogo perevoda. 1979 / A.F.Shiryaev. – p. 8

22. Toury, G. Translation, literary translation and pseudotranslation. Comparative criticism, vol. 6 /

G.Toury.– Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. – P. 73-85.

23. Tytler, A.F. Essay on the principles of translation / A.F.Tytler. – Edinburgh: Cadell, 1997. – p.

252

24. Vinogradov, V.S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie (obshie i leksicheskie voprosy) / V.S.Vinogradov.

– M.: RAO, 2001. – p. 224

Библиографические ссылки

Alekseeva, I.S. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie. / I.S.Alekseeva - SPb.: Filologicheskij fakultet

SPbGU: M.: Izdatelskij centr «Akademiya», 2004. - p. 352

Alikina, E. V. Vvedenie v teoriyu i praktiku ustnogo posledovatelnogo perevoda: uchebnoe

posobie [Tekst] / E. V. Alikina. - M.: Vostochnaya kniga, 2010. - 192 s.

Bao, Chuanyun. 2015. Pedagogy. The Routledge handbook of interpreting, ed. HollyMikkelson,

andReneeJourdenais, 400^416. London: Routledge.

Barhudarov, L.S. Yazyk i perevod (Voprosyobshej i chastnoj teorii perevoda)/L.S.Barhudarova.-

M.: «Mezhdunar. otnosheniya», 1975. - p. 240

Chemyahovskaya, L. A. Perevod i smyslovaya struktura / L.A.Chemyahovskaya.- M.:

Mezhdunar. otnosheniya, 1976. - p. 264

Choi, J. Qualite et preparation de Г interpretation. Evolution des modes de preparation et role de Г Internet [Электронныйресурс] / J. Choi. - 2005. - Режим доступа: http://id.erudit.Org/iderudit/Q 19862ar (дата обращения 30.11. 19).

D. Gile. - Lille: Presse Universitaire de Lille, 1995b. - 280 p.

Efremova, T.F. Novyj slovar russkogo yazyka. / T.F.Efremova- M.: Drofa, 2000. - p. 1233

Fedorov, A.V. Osnovy obshej teorii perevoda (lingvisticheskie problemy) / A.V.Fedorov - M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1983. - p. 303

Florin, Sider. Muki perevodcheskie / Sider Florin.- M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1983. - p. 183

Galeeva, N. L. Osnovy deyatelnosti: teorii perevoda / N.L.Galeeva. - Tver: Izd-vo Tverskogo un-ta, 1997. - p. 80

Garusova, E.V. Interpretativnye pozicii perevodchika как prichina variativnosti perevoda. Dis.

kand. filol. nauk. / E.V.Garusova. - Tver: TvGU, 2007. - p. 173

Gile, D. Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training [Текст] / D. Gile. - Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing company, 1995a. - 283 p.

Gile, D. Regards sur la recherche en interpretation de conference [Текст] /

Herbert, J. Manuel de I’interprete: Comment on devient I’interprete de conferences [Текст] / J.

Herbert. - Geneve, 1952. - 113 p.

Komissarov, V.N. Obshaya teoriya perevoda (Problemy perevodovedeniya v osveshenii zarubezhnyh uchenyh) / V.N.Komissarov. - M.: CheRo, 1999. - p. 134

Lefevere, A. Translational practice and the circulation of cultural capital: Some aeneids in English // Constructing cultures. Essays on literary translation / Ed. S. Bassnett. / A.Lefevere. - London: The Cromwell Press, 1998. - P. 55-62.

Minyar-Beloruchev, R. К. Kak stat perevodchikom? / R.K.Minyar-Beloruchev.— M.: Gotika, 1999. —p. 176

Parshin, A.N. Teoriya i praktika perevoda / A.N.Parshin. - M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1995. - p. 167

Reiss, K. Klassifikaciya tekstov i metody perevoda // Voprosy teorii perevoda v zarubezhnoj ilingvistike / Pod obsh. red. V.N. Komissarova I K. Rajs. - M., 1978. - pp. 202-228

Shiryaev, A. F. Sinhronnyj perevod, deyatelnost sinhronnogo perevodchika i metodika prepodavaniya sinhronnogo perevoda. 1979 / A.F.Shiryaev. - p. 8

Toury, G. Translation, literary translation and pseudotranslation. Comparative criticism, vol. 6 /

G.Toury.- Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. - P. 73-85.

Tytler, A.F. Essay on the principles of translation / A.F.Tytler. - Edinburgh: Cadell, 1997. - p.252

Vinogradov, VS. Vvedenie v perevodovedenie (obshie i leksicheskie voprosy) I V.S.Vinogradov. -M.:RAO, 2001.-p. 224

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