DEVELOPING CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETER’S COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS OF EMOTIVE-EMPATHIC

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Абдуганиева J. (2020). DEVELOPING CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETER’S COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS OF EMOTIVE-EMPATHIC. in Library, 20(3), 115–131. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/10874
Джамиля Абдуганиева, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков

Доктор философии по педагогическим наукам, заведующая кафедрой теории перевода английского языка. 

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Аннотация

Consecutive interpretation is a special form of oral communication between people speaking different languages, representing different cultures, and it is carried out in any situation of intercultural communication in order to exchange thoughts, information, knowledge, labor results, products, emotions, values, relationships in the process of interaction. A consecutive interpreter is a mediator of intercultural communication, and the development of emotive-empathic interaction skills of an interpreter promotes the successfulncss of such communication. Interpreters’ communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction within consecutive interpretation may be defined as a communicative and speech act in a foreign language communication implemented independently and in an optimal way. The act is accomplished at the level of interactionexchange of emotions and relations both in the frames of independent component and in the frames of processing the cognitive and interactive components. This enables to carry out the cmotivc-cmpathic interaction under any conditions and new situations of consecutive interpretation thanks to the full totality of qualities. The aim of the paper is to consider issues related to emotions, empathy, their role in the process of communication, and their levels of empathy. Skills of emotive-empathic interactions and relevant to national culture, also the issues of the development of communicative skills in the mentioned interaction of the future interpreters, determined the conditions for their formation arc described. In addition the paper presents definition of the communicative ability of the emotive-empathic interaction of future interpreters; considers a set of exercises aimed at the formation of these skills. The results of the scientific research are presented by the set of exercises.


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115

Uzbek State World Languages University

ФМ

2020 Vol. 33 No. 3

THEORY AND PRACTICE

OF TRANSLATION

E-ISSN: 2181-1237

Philology Matters / ISSN: 1994-4233

Jameela Abduganieva

Researcher, Uzbekistan State World Languages

University

DEVELOPING CONSECUTIVE

INTERPRETER’S COMMUNICATIVE

SKILLS OF EMOTIVE-EMPATHIC

ANNOTATION

Consecutive interpretation is a special form

of oral communication between people speaking

different languages, representing different cultures,

and it is carried out in any situation of intercultural

communication in order to exchange thoughts,

information, knowledge, labor results, products,

emotions, values, relationships in the process of

interaction.

A consecutive interpreter is a mediator of

intercultural communication, and the development

of emotive-empathic interaction skills of an

interpreter promotes the successfulness of such

communication.

Interpreters’ communicative skills of

emotive-empathic interaction within consecutive

interpretation may be defined as a communicative

and speech act in a foreign language communication

implemented independently and in an optimal way.

The act is accomplished at the level of interaction-

exchange of emotions and relations both in the

frames of independent component and in the

frames of processing the cognitive and interactive

components. This enables to carry out the emotive-

empathic interaction under any conditions and

new situations of consecutive interpretation thanks

to the full totality of qualities.

The aim of the paper is to consider issues

related to emotions, empathy, their role in the

process of communication, and their levels of

empathy. Skills of emotive-empathic interactions

and relevant to national culture, also the issues of

the development of communicative skills in the

mentioned interaction of the future interpreters,

determined the conditions for their formation are

described. In addition the paper presents definition

Жамила Абдуғаниева

Ўзбекистан давлат жаҳон тиллар университети

докторанти

ТАРЖИМОНЛАРНИНГ

ЭМОТИВ-ЭМПАТИК

АСПЕКТДА КОММУНИКАТИВ

КЎНИКМАЛАРИНИ

РИВОЖЛАНТИРИШ

АННОТАЦИЯ

Кетма-кет таржима турли тилларда

сўзлашадиган, ҳар хил маданиятларни ифода-

лайдиган шахслар ўртасидаги оғзаки нутқнинг

махсус шакли сифатида ҳар қандай маданият-

лараро алоқада ва ҳар қандай вазиятда фикр-

лар, маълумотлар, билимлар, меҳнат натижа-

лари, маҳсулотлар, ҳиссиётлар, қадриятлар,

муносабатлар алмашинуви мақсадида амалга

оширилади.

Таржимон – маданиятлараро мулоқотнинг

воситачиси, таржимоннинг эмоционал-эмпа-

тик таъсир ўтказиш кўникмаларини ривож-

лантириш мулоқотнинг муваффақиятини

таъминлайди. Кетма-кет таржима жараёнида

эмоционал-эмпатик ўзаро муносабатларнинг

коммуникатив кўникмалари мустақил равиш-

да ва мақбул тарзда амалга ошириладиган чет

тили мулоқотининг коммуникатив ва нутқий

фаолияти сифатида аниқланиши мумкин. Бун-

дай жараён таъсир даражасида – ҳиссиётлар ва

муносабатлар алмашинуви мустақил компо-

нент доирасида ҳам, когнитив ва интерактив

компонентларни қайта ишлаш доирасида ҳам

амалга оширилади. Бу ҳар қандай шароитда

кетма-кет таржиманинг эмоционал-эмпатик

ўзаро таъсирини амалга оширишга имкон бе-

ради.

Мақоланинг мақсади – эмпатия ва унинг

мулоқот жараёнида тутган ўрни ва даража-

си ва ҳиссиётлар билан боғлиқ масалаларни

кўриб чиқишдир. Эмоционал-эмпатик ўзаро

алоқалар ва миллий маданиятга тегишли

бўлган кўникмалар, шунингдек, келажакда

DOI: 10. 36078/987654452


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of the communicative ability of the emotive-

empathic interaction of future interpreters;

considers a set of exercises aimed at the formation

of these skills. The results of the scientific research

are presented by the set of exercises.

Key words:

empathy, interpreter, intercultural

communication, communicative ability, emotive-

empathic interaction, bilingualism, non-verbal

means of communication, exercise.

INTRODUCTION

The emotional-empathic component is present at all levels of communication as

interaction, all interpersonal relationships are based on emotions and empathy. The ideal

communication is communication driven by the motive of affiliation (A. Mehrabian,

H. Heckhausen, H. Murray, A.N. Leontyev and others), that is, the desire to establish

and maintain relationships with other people, the desire for contact, cooperation and

communication with them. The purpose of the motivation for affiliation is a mutual

and trusting relationship, where each partner, if he does not like the other, then treats

him with kindness, accepts him, supports him in a friendly manner and sympathizes

with him. However, in the modern world, in the context of cooperation, thousands of

people from different cultures communicate daily without success, as the negative

influence of cross-cultural differences, due to an undeveloped emotional culture, lack

of empathy, and an incorrect assessment of a communication partner representing a

different culture, are especially pronounced.

Emotional states as a special class of mental processes and conditions are

associated with instincts, needs and motives, reflecting in the form of direct experience

(satisfaction, joy, fear, etc.) the significance of the phenomena and situations acting

on the individual for the implementation of his/her life [Zimnyaya I.A., 2005; 467].

Emotion causes a certain behavioral activity, and behavioral activity is capable

of generating emotions. Therefore, emotions are of great importance in any purposeful

activity of a person, including communicative ones; take an active part in the regulation

of activity. Emotions arise if events or results of actions are related to motives. Any

manifestations of human activity are accompanied by emotional experiences. Therefore,

emotions perform a lot of different functions: activation, expressive (communicative),

mobilization, integrative-protective, regulatory, anticipating, cognitive, synthesizing,

switching, reinforcing, managing, and coordinating.

The communication process can have a positive or negative emotional attitude.

Most researchers (A.N. Leontyev, B.I. Dodonov, P.V. Simonov) subdivide any

таржимонлар шаклланишининг ушбу шарт-

ларини белгилаб берган ўзаро алоқаларида

коммуникатив кўникмаларни ривожлантириш

масалалари тадқиқ этилган. Бундан ташқари,

мақолада бўлажак таржимонларнинг эмоци-

онал-эмпатик ўзаро таъсирининг коммуника-

тив кўникмаси таърифи келтирилган; ушбу

кўникмаларни шакллантиришга қаратилган

машқлар тўплами таҳлил қилинган. Илмий

тадқиқотлар натижалари машқлар тўплами

билан изоҳланади.

Калит сўзлар:

эмпатия, оғзаки таржи-

ма, маданиятлараро мулоқот, коммуникатив

кўникма, эмоционал-эмпатик ўзаро таъсир,

билингвизм, новербал алоқа воситалари,

машқлар.


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emotional states into two opposite classes. The emotion sign (positive, negative) is one

of the main qualitative characteristics of emotions, in which “the attitude to the reflected

phenomena as the main property of emotions” is manifested [Ramos C., Marina, Ana

R., 2014: 408]. Positive emotions induce the subject to achieve and maintain impacts,

the subject seeks the object of emotion, in this case, the action that the individual

performs and the impact to which he is exposed, are in a positive relation to his needs;

negative ones induce activity aimed at avoiding harmful effects, a person seeks from

the object of emotion, in this case, the action that the individual performs and the effect

to which he is exposed, are in a negative relation to his needs. The function of positive

or negative authorization inherent in emotions does not relate to the implementation

of individual acts, but to the ratio of the effects achieved with the direction given to

the activity by its motive. The mere success of an action does not necessarily lead to

positive emotions; it can give rise to a severe emotional experience, sharply signaling

that on the part of the motivational sphere of a person, the achieved success turns into

a defeat. In order to experience positive emotions, one must strive not to experience

them, but to achieve those goals that generate these emotions [Rojo, Ana, Marina

R. C., Javier V., 2014].

In recent decades, the research on psychological factors has gained popularity in

Interpreting Studies. In line with the discourse-based interaction paradigm [Wadensjö,

1998], interpreting can be perceived as a communicative activity in which an

interpreter acts as a mediator enabling communication between two parties expressing

not only meaning, but also intentions and emotions. Some interpreting scholars have

emphasized the significance of psycho-affective factors in the interpreting profession

[Brisau, Godijns and Meuleman, 1994; Timarová and Ungoed-Thomas, 2008;

Bontempo and Napier, 2011; Pöchhacker, 2011; Rosiers, Eyckmans and Bauwens,

2011].

It is in communication as the interaction of subjects with the aim of exchanging

information that mental processes, states and human behavior arise, exist and manifest

throughout life [Shevandrin, 1995/2005].

The specificity and complexity of consecutive two-way interpretation (hereinafter

CTI) lies primarily in the fact that it is a complex specific secondary type of speech

activity [Zimniaya, 1991] which is implemented in such forms as listening, writing,

dialogue speaking with the inclusion of monologue . Such type of interpretation is

always carried out within the framework of intercultural communication, foreign

language communication between people speaking different languages, in order to

organize the interaction of partners, when the interpreter listens, hears and understands

information, attitude, emotional coloring, communicative intentions expressed by

means of the source language, preserving the identity with the help of fixation of

thoughts of oral utterance, completes the process by formulating these thoughts with

equivalent means of another language, accompanied by appropriate transmission of

the emotional-attitude behavior [Serova, 2006].

MAIN PART

As pointed out by Bontempo and Napier [2011; 87] psychological and affective


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factors may have implications for interpreting. Hence, some effective factors have

recently been investigated not only in the process of written translation [Rojo, Ramos

Caro and Valenzuela, 2014] and audio description [Ramos Caro and Rojo, 2014], but

also in empirical studies on interpreters. For instance, interpreting scholars have been

interested in the personality profile of a professional interpreter and interpreting novice.

Emotional stability as a predictor of interpreters` competence and aptitude for

interpreting has been tested in an empirical study by Bontempo and Napier (2011). The

concept was measured by the negative affectivity scale, and the study demonstrated a

strong impact of emotional stability on interpreters’ perceived competence [Bontempo

and Napier, 2011]. The authors stated that the results may be applied in interpreting

practice by showing how emotional stability may mitigate work pressure, challenges

and occupational stress to which interpreters are exposed [Bontempo and Napier,

2011].

Currently, as a result of training, an interpreter needs to have the ability and

willingness to interact at the above levels with communicants who are the native

speakers of different languages and representatives of different cultures. An interpreter

contributes not only to the successful exchange of information and planning of

a common strategy, but also to mutual understanding between partners. Based on

this, an important condition for the successful course of intercultural communication

becomes the ability of an interpreter to interact at the emotional and empathic level and

possession of skills of emotional communication. These skills require the ability to

preserve and maintain a positive emotional mood among communication participants;

change, smooth out the negative attitude towards the partner and switch to positive

or neutral. All subjects of intercultural communication should be satisfied with its

process and result. This is the goal of emotional-empathic interaction.

The emotional-empathic level of foreign language communication among people

is implemented in the discourse, which has verbal and non-verbal components. It is

also important to emphasize that discourse in consecutive interpretation is bilingual.

The verbal component of such a discourse is bilingual, as an interpreter translates

the text from one language to another. The non-verbal component of the discourse is

due to the affiliation of communication partners to a particular culture, because non-

verbal means may have differences in meanings, usage, performance and perception

in different cultures. This is explained by the fact that many components of non-verbal

behavior are not innate, but acquired, and their significance is culturally determined

[Izard, 1980; Kreydlin, 2002; Ekman, 2010].

Communication in general and foreign language communication in the context

of interpretation as a complex, multifaceted process of establishing and developing

contacts, human interaction, is generated by the needs for joint communicative and

speech activities, professional activities and includes the exchange of information,

emotions, attitudes to each other, the development of a unified interaction strategy

[Ekman, 2003; Bartłomiejczyk, 2007; Elfenbein and Ambady, 2002].

All three components of communication as an interaction (namely informational,

interactive, perceptual, or emotional-empathic), are closely related, and subjects,


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acting mutually, can influence each other sending each other information, their

attitude, emotions, products, actions, making them common.

The formed culture of communicative-speech interaction in bilingual and

bicultural communication in the context of CTI is an important component of the

professional competence of an interpreter.

In the interpretation discourse, partners interact with each other in an intercultural

environment. All components of this discourse, as noted above, are bilingual, since

the interpreter deals with two languages: the source and the target one. In bilingual

discourse, the function of controlling the process of generating discourse is performed

to a greater extent by an interpreter [Knapp, 1985; Moschanskaya, 2008]. Other subjects

of communication are guided by it. The verbal component always contains emotive-

empathic manifestations. For this reason, the role of the interpreter is very important.

(S)He perceives a fragment of discourse, recognizes the emotions and relationships

shown, understands them, and then interprets using verbal, phonational and non-

verbal means to express various emotions and relationships. When interpreting, the

interpreter at the same time, takes into account the participants of communication who

speak different languages and represent different cultures, their non-verbal behavior,

environment, various additional information, etc. Bilingualism of an interpreter is a

complex, systemic, intrapersonal education, which includes a certain new language

system, the ability to use it in a communication situation [Serova, 2010].

Human activity does not exist otherwise than in the form of an action or chain

of actions [Leontiev, 1983].

For the methodology of teaching interpreting, the important point is that “in the

joint activity of people, it is possible to distribute actions between different participants

in the activity” [Leontiev, 1974], including interpreting in each specific situation.

A.A. Leontiev [Leontiev, 197] proposes to distinguish speech actions of three

plans: a) on the development of a particular operation; b) for servicing non-speech

activity; c) in communication activities.

Obviously, when defining communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction

as the basis for distinguishing another type of simple and complex skills, one can take

the second and third plan of speech actions of consecutive two-way interpretation.

This may also be due to the fact that only non-verbal means are used or non-

verbal and verbal are used together to express emotions and attitude towards a partner.

The emotional-empathic component is present not only as an independent

component of communication, but also at the information and interactive levels. Not

only the partners, but also the interpreter depends on whether communication will

take place and whether it will have a positive result at all three levels; whether the

partners will have a steady interest in communication, including the achievement of a

collective result in business communication.

According to the theory of speech activity “every single act of activity begins

with a motive and plan and ends with a result, achievement of the goal outlined at the

beginning; in the middle lies a dynamic system of concrete actions and operations

aimed at this achievement” [Leontiev, 1969]. This is fundamentally important when


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considering the problem of communication skills of subjects in oral consecutive two-

way interpretation as a complex form of foreign-language bilingual and bicultural

speech activity.

It is possible to define the speech interpretation skill of emotive-empathic

interaction under the conditions of CTI as the communicative speech action of foreign

language communication performed independently and in the best way at the level

of interaction — exchange of emotions and attitude within the framework of both

an independent component and within the framework of servicing information and

interactive interaction, which allows the presence of a full set of qualities to implement

in any conditions and new situations CTI this specially organized foreign language the

speech activity [Serova, 2006; Leontiev, 1969; Passov, 1991].

Groups, types of skills of emotive-empathic interaction in oral consecutive

interpretation as a complex form of a foreign language speech activity can qualify

both simple and creative complex skills due to the fact that CTI is a bilingual speech

activity in which there is a dialogue of two cultures, the manifestation of emotions

and relationships, which determines, in turn, the dialogue of two languages in the

process of expressing data of two cultures. If there is one language and one culture

of emotional-empathic interaction, then the skill can be defined as simple, and if

it is a fragment of the CTI situation, when bilingualism and biculturality are fully

manifested, then these are complex creative skills.

Thus, the basis for dividing into types of skills becomes bilingualism associated

with verbal and non-verbal means of expressing emotions and attitudes among

speakers of different cultures and languages.

In connection with the foregoing, the communicative ability of emotional-

empathic interaction in the context of consecutive interpretation is considered by us

as a self-performed and optimally communicative-speech action of a foreign language

communication at the level of interaction-exchange of emotions and relationships, both

within an independent component and within the framework of information service

and interaction, allowing due to the presence of a full set of qualities to carry out

emotional-empathic interaction in any conditions and new situations of consecutive

interpretation [Karpova, Serova, 2010].

We divided these skills into two groups, represented by two types, each of which

includes seven types. The skills of the first group presuppose the ability of an interpreter

to carry out dialogic communicative–speech actions, which are accompanied by an

exchange of emotions and relations of a neutral and positive nature and are based on

cooperation, mutual assistance and mutual understanding. The skills of the second

group include the ability to switch from negatively colored emotional-empathic

manifestations that arise from other partners or the interpreter himself, to neutral or

positive emotions and attitudes.

Types of communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction are divided by

us into simple and complex. A skill is defined as simple when communicating, which

is characterized by the presence of one language and one culture, and as complex

when it comes to a situation of consecutive interpretation, in which bilingualism and


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biculturalism are fully manifested.

The basis for dividing skills into types is the following:

– the number of emotions and relationships and the nature of their compatibility;

– participation of one or two languages;

– the nature of complexity and the amount of means of expressing emotions and

relationships;

– the number and compatibility of types of foreign speech activity in the process

of emotional-empathic interaction;

– accompaniment by the emotional-empathic interaction of the information and

interactive components of the communication process;

– two-component speech unit of interpretation;

inclusion of the number of fragments of the discourse of consecutive

interpretation [Karpova/Serova, 2010].

Formed communicative skills of emotional-empathic interaction include the

ability of a future interpreter to help partners in intercultural communication tune-

in to positive emotions in relation to each other; contribute to the creation of a

positive emotional background of communication, to understand the socio-cultural

characteristics of communication between representatives of different languages and

cultures; accept their cultural differences neutrally or positively; recognize and correctly

understand the emotions and attitudes of participants in intercultural communication

representing different languages and cultures, while taking into account the possibility

of differences in verbal, non-verbal and phonetic means used to express emotions and

relationships in both languages and both cultures.

These skills are formed on the basis of a selected and didactically organized

system of verbal, phonation and non-verbal means of expressing emotions and

relationships in two languages and cultures, in our case in Russian and English.

The possession of the skills of positively colored emotional communicative-

speech behavior allows an interpreter in any communication situation to create

a positive psychological background, positive emotions, show approval, joy for

success, satisfaction with the result, sympathy, goodwill, respect, which, in turn,

unites everyone on the way solving a problem and achieving a goal – a result.

Such skills suggest that an interpreter in the process of interaction in the

conditions of consecutive two-way interpretation is able to:

– attune to positive emotional success, joy, goodwill, respect, sympathy;

– listen carefully, see and understand the feelings, emotions and attitude of

partners in the process of interaction;

– stimulate the manifestation of partners’ goodwill, empathy, joy, confidence,

interest in achieving the goal;

– express their interest, attention and respect verbally and non-verbally (eyes,

head position, facial expressions, smile, etc.) to [Serova/Goreva, 2005].

In the process of switching from negative emotions and relationships to positive,

two or more final options are possible, for example, from emotions of anger and

resentment, you can switch to sympathy and goodwill, from emotions of irritation and


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indignation to respect and restraint, etc.

Due to the fact that in the situation of consecutive interpretation, several types

and forms of speech activity are included, namely listening, thinking and writing,

speaking, and sometimes reading along with keywords, then a two-component

education becomes its unit of activity, in which each component is a complex structural

whole. In the first component, in the process of listening, semantic verbal decisions

are made, meaning-making on the basis of written fixation or without it as internal

semantic programming of the upcoming utterance, and in the second component is

the generation of the utterance text as part of the speech communicative act, which is

also implemented in the process of several types of speech activity, conditioned and

regulated by a specific communicative interpretation situation [Serova, 2001].

Given the complexity of the unit of speech activity of consecutive interpretation

due to its two-component nature, we can distinguish simple and complex skills of

emotive-empathic interaction, when it is based only on one component or both, i.e. a

complete communicative-speech act of interpretation activity is performed [Serova,

2001].

If we consider the dynamic process of the CTI in specific situations, which

involves the implementation of different types of speech activity in the form of a

flexible combination of them, then in this case various types of both simple and complex

skills are possible, namely, only listening and understanding of emotions expressed by

various means and relations, or just speaking as a product of a secondary oral text –

statements with the transfer of emotions and relationships in it. Complex skills in this

case can include, for example, listening and simultaneous writing-fixing or listening

with simultaneous reading by keywords and fixing-letters, as well as speaking on the

basis of reading a fixed program of the content of the upcoming translation text and

reading by key words – references demonstration materials accompanying the source

text.

A complex creative skill will be the completion from the beginning to the end

of the communicative-speech fragment of the CTI, where all the indicated types of

a foreign-language speech activity in the bilingualism and bicultural mode will take

place.

All the skills of the emotive-empathic interaction of an interpreter or in situations

of consecutive interpretation were represented by two groups, each of which had

two types of skills. In turn, both the first and second types include seven species,

distinguished according to the above grounds (Scheme 1), while each type of a simple

skill can have a different number of options.

So, the first and seventh types of skills can have a fairly large number of options,


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but no less than 14 in the first form and an infinite number in the latter.

Scheme 1

SKILLS OF EMOTIVE-EMPATHIC INTERACTION

The first group of skills

of positively colored emotional-em-

pathic communicative-speech behavior

The second group of skills.

Switching from negatively colored

emotional-empathic communicative-

speech behavior to positive

1. Types of simple skills

2. Types of complex skills

1

st

type:

one pair of positive emotions and

relationships

1

st

type:

a combination of several and different posi-

tive emotions and relationships

2

nd

type:

combination of transition from one or

two pairs of negative emotions and at-

titudes to positive

2

nd

type:

combination of transition from several

negative emotions and attitudes to positive

3

rd

type:

participation of one (mother tongue or

foreign language) language

3

rd

type:

participation of two languages

4

th

type:

use of only one means as a pair of

verbal and non-verbal

4

th

type:

use of several and different means of verbal

and nonverbal

5

th

type:

in one type of speech activity

5

th

type:

in several types of speech activity

6

th

type:

for servicing one component of foreign

language communication

6

th

type:

for servicing immediately the information

and regulatory components of communica-

tion

7

th

type:

on the inclusion of one part of the

speech activity unit CTI

7

th

type:

inclusion of both parts of the speech unit of

CTI

8

th

type:

on the implementation of one fragment

of the communicative-speech act of

CTI

8

th

type:

on the implementation of several fragments

of the communicative-speech act of CTI in

a specific situation

From the second to the sixth types type – simple skills can be represented by only

two options each. The complex creative skills of the emotive-empathic interaction of

the fifth, sixth and seventh types are correlated with the complex bilingual speech

activity of consecutive two-way interpretation.


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It should be emphasized that both the first and second groups of skills are

implemented in each type of simple and complex skills of emotive-empathic

interaction, which allows us to successfully develop all their important qualities in the

process of forming these skills.

From the list of qualities of speech skills, the most important for characterizing

the skills of emotive-empathic interaction in CTI are purposefulness, dynamism,

productivity, integration, hierarchy [Passov, 1989].

Purposefulness should be considered as the ability to manage the complex

speech activity of the CTI, strictly focusing on the goal-task to understand, extract

information with its emotive-empathic nature, formulate and arrange an oral text –

utterance, transmitting information and an emotional-relative character by means

of a language, phonation and non-verbal means of another language of translation

and another emotional-behavioral culture, striving for the goal – the result, so that

the correct understanding of the text-utterance and the response the yelling and non-

speech actions of the partners of the CTI situation [Serova, 2001].

Dynamism implies the ability of the interpreter to develop in time without

pauses and the return of the performed communicative-speech actions of the emotive-

empathic plan in different ways and in the new conditions of the CTI and to quickly

solve communicative translation tasks.

The productivity of both simple and complex communicative-speech skills of

emotional-empathic interaction is associated with the creation of the original, adequate

to the original, high-quality text of the statement required in a given situation from

the point of view of content, volume, form, emotional and empathy plan, and most

importantly, understandable by partners, which is always expressed in their response.

Integration is associated with the essential processes of penetration into each

other of simple and complex skills, their types and implementation options in the

translation solution, their interaction within a certain sequence.

And, finally, hierarchy is manifested, first of all, in the complex skills of the

emotional-empathic interaction in communication, which include simple skills.

Thus, emotive-empathic skills are quite specific. They suggest that the future

interpreter is capable to:

– help communication partners positively emotionally tune in to joy, goodwill,

respect, sympathy for each other;

– assist in the beginning of interaction to establish positive emotional relations

of communication partners, their manifestation of joy, sympathy, respect, goodwill

towards each other;

– empathize, i.e. put yourself in the place of another person;

– encourage communication partners to show kindness, joy, interest in achieving

the goal;

– be aware of the sociocultural specifics of communication partners;

– positively (or neutrally) accept cultural differences and value systems of

representatives of another society;

– see and correctly understand the emotions and relationships of partners –


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representatives of different cultures and languages – in the process of interaction,

taking into account possible discrepancies in the verbal and non-verbal expression of

these emotions and relationships;

– give a positive emotional coloring to the transmitted message;

– support the activity of partners with positive verbal and non-verbal

reinforcement, for example, a friendly smile;

– support and, if necessary, create through verbal and non-verbal means a

positive emotional attitude in the process of communication.

One of the important conditions for the formation of skills of emotionally

empathic interaction is the selection and didactic organization of macro-discourse

with verbal, phonation, and/or nonverbal means of expressing negative, neutral, and

positive emotions and relationships. Macro discourse consists of video clips; text

excerpts from monographs, textbooks and online resources; non-linguistic iconic

means (drawings and photographs).

A set of exercises is adopted as a means of forming the above-mentioned skills.

Exercise is a unit of learning in the process of dialogical speaking and listening,

auditory and visual perception, comprehension and understanding of emotions and

relationships, their manifestation in statements or switching from negative emotive-

empathic manifestations to positive or neutral in a specific communicative-speech

situation, relying on video clips, texts on electronic and paper media or non-linguistic

iconic means. As examples, the following wording of exercises:

– Read the text in Russian and tell me what positive emotions and what positive

attitudes are expressed in it; what verbal means are used in this case.

– View and listen to the video clip where the hero demonstrates his friendly,

benevolent attitude; make a monologue, expressing your consent and using the

necessary verbal and non-verbal means of manifesting emotions and relationships

based on the glossary.

– View and listen to the video fragment with the statements of the partner in

English, colored with positive emotions and attitudes, transmit its contents in Russian,

using, based on the glossary, equivalent options for expressing the emotions and

attitudes shown.

– Based on the key words read the demonstration materials, thank your friend

for you his/her in organizing the New Year, showing friendliness, joy and approval.

– View and listen to the video clip of the conversation and reproduce the

statement, switching, based on the glossary, from the attitude of censure and emotion

of irritability to the attitude of restraint and emotion of friendliness, changing the

overall timbre of the voice.

– View and listen to the video in English and reproduce the statement, retaining

the content, but switching, based on the glossary, from expressing indignation and

censure to restraint and goodwill.

– View and listen to the video fragment stained with anger and indifference,

transmit its content, switching to positive and/or neutral (optional) emotive-empathic

manifestations, using verbal, non-verbal and phonation means based on the glossary.


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The success of the process and the result of intercultural communication is

determined by the formation of the communicative skills of the emotive-empathic

interaction of the interpreter. The formation of these skills must begin in the first year

of professional training of an interpreter.

A set of exercises is adopted as a means of forming the above-mentioned skills.

Exercise is a unit of learning in the process of dialogical speaking and listening,

auditory and visual perception, comprehension and understanding of emotions and

relationships, their manifestation in statements or switching from negative emotive-

empathic manifestations to positive or neutral in a specific communicative-speech

situation, relying on video clips, texts on electronic and paper media or non-linguistic

iconic means [Karpova, 2011].

A means of forming communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction

is a set of exercises (figure). Only the implementation of exercises leads to the

achievement of the learning goal [Passov, 1989]. As a unit of training for emotional-

empathic interaction, we take a specially organized exercise in the manifestation of

emotions and relationships of subjects to each other at the information-cognitive level

in the process of exchanging information, at the interactive level in the process of

distributing roles, functions and tasks, and, of course, emotional-empathic level.


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Scheme 2

A set of exercises for the formation of communicative skills of

emotional-empathic interaction

Group I

Exercises on the formation of skills of

manifestation of positive and neutral emo-

tions and relationships

Group II

Exercises on the formation of

switching skills from negatively col-

ored emotional-empathic interaction

to positive and neutral

Listening, auditory and visual perception

and recognition of positive and neutral

emotions and attitudes

Listening, auditory and visual per-

ception and recognition of the mani-

festation of other negative emotions

and relationships

Reproduction (speaking) and manifesta-

tion of positive and neutral emotions and

relationships

Speaking (production) and switch-

ing from negative emotions and re-

lationships positive and neutral

Speaking and expression of emotions and

relationships in Russian and/or English

Use when switching from one or

two languages and cultures

The manifestation of positive and neutral

emotions and relationships in the context

of several types of speech activity (listen-

ing, writing, speaking and reading)

Implementation of switching in sev-

eral types of conditions of speech

activity

Implementing one or two components of

a foreign language communication (infor-

mation-cognitive and/or interactive)

Implementing one or two compo-

nents of a foreign language commu-

nication (information-cognitive and/

or interactive)

When performing all the exercises, students listen to and review pre-prepared

information material in the form of authentic video fragments of a specific micro-

discourse or they are given statements in a specific situation, illustrative material

(photographs, drawings), and didactic material. This material acts as an important

information basis for the successful activities of students. It allows you to cope with

the difficulties arising in the performance of speech activity and associated with the

subject plan and verbal, non-verbal and phonetic means. In exercises based on the

use of video materials, each time specific verbal, non-verbal and phonetic means

are offered. Under the information basis, we understand the totality of information

that characterizes the objective and subjective conditions of activity and ensures its

organization in accordance with the vector of movement towards an individual and

collective goal-result [Serova/Maletina, 2010; Shadrikov, 1996].

The first group of exercises is aimed at the formation of simple and complex

skills of emotional-empathic interaction to show only positive and neutral emotions

and attitudes. This group consists of five types of exercises.

In each type of exercise on the formation of skills of manifestation of positive


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and neutral emotions and relationships, there can be several options depending on the

compatibility of emotions and relationships and their means of expression, as well

as the participation of Russian, English or two languages, their manifestation in the

process of several types of speech activity.

Exercises of the first type involve working with a video clip, drawing or

photograph, where certain positive and neutral emotions and attitudes appear. The

object of this type are the speech actions of comprehending the emotional-empathic

interaction, evaluating the emotions and relationships shown. Students need to

recognize and explain by what means they are expressed. These exercises contribute

to the development of the ability to recognize and memorize means of expressing

positive and neutral emotional experiences.

Exercises of the second type are aimed at displaying positive and neutral

emotions and attitudes in the process of expressing the reproductive plan.

Exercises of the third type involve the use by a student of one or two languages

and cultures of emotional-empathic interaction. They contribute to the formation

of the ability to recognize positive and neutral emotional manifestations expressed

verbally, non-verbally and phonetically by means of a native or foreign language, and

use them in your own statement. Also, these exercises are aimed at the formation of

skills to distinguish between formal, neutral and informal communication registers.

When performing these exercises, students work with video materials in Russian

or English or with cards on which verbal, non-verbal and phonological means of

expressing emotions and relationships are presented.

Exercises of the fourth type deal with the inclusion of different types of speech

activity: listening, understanding and writing-fixing with the manifestation of emotions

and relationships expressed by different means; listening and speaking as a product of

a secondary oral text-utterance with the transfer of emotions and relationships in it.

At the same time, reliance is made when listening and speaking on writing-fixing and

reading plan items, key phrases, and table of contents for drawings, etc. In the first

case, students are offered videos; in the second – cards with verbal, non-verbal and

phonetic means of expressing positive or neutral emotional experiences.

These exercises form listening and dialogical speaking skills within the

framework of emotional-empathic interaction.

In exercises of the fifth kind, the skills of manifesting emotions and relationships

are formed in the process of interaction for the purpose of exchanging information

(information and cognitive component) and for the purpose of exchanging and

distributing tasks, results, roles, functions, time, place, etc. (regulatory and

organizational component).

The second group of exercises on the formation of switching skills from

negatively colored emotional-empathic interaction to positively or neutrally colored

also has five types, each of which can have several options depending on the number

and compatibility of means of expressing emotions and relationships.

Exercises of the first type involve working with a video clip, photograph or

drawing, where negative emotions and attitudes appear. Students need to recognize


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and explain by what means they are expressed. These exercises contribute to the

development of the ability to recognize manifested negative emotional experiences.

In exercises of the second type, the manifestation of negative emotions and

relationships by other subjects is presented; these exercises are aimed at the formation

of skills to make statements and switch from these manifestations to positive or neutral.

Exercises of the third type involve the presence of one or two languages and

cultures of emotional-empathic interaction (switching to positive or neutral emotions

and attitudes in Russian and English). They contribute to the formation of the ability

to recognize negative emotional manifestations in one (native or foreign) language

and transmit them by means of the same or another language, switching from negative

emotions and relationships to positive and neutral.

When performing these exercises, students work with video materials in Russian

or English. Students perceive the discourse in one language and transmit it in the same

or another language using appropriate means.

Exercises of the fourth type deal with the inclusion of several types of speech

activity, for example: listening and simultaneous writing and then subsequent

speaking; listening with simultaneous reading by keywords and subsequent speaking;

speaking on the basis of reading a fixed program of the content of the upcoming

statement; listening and speaking based on reading on the key words-referents of the

demonstration materials accompanying the utterance. To perform this type of exercise,

students are offered videos and cards with verbal, non-verbal and phonetic means of

expressing negative emotional experiences.

These exercises form listening and writing skills, reading by key words and

dialogical speaking in the process of emotional-empathic interaction.

The fifth type of exercises involves switching from negatively colored emotions

and relationships to positive and neutral in the process of accompanying one or

two components of a foreign language communication, namely, interaction for the

purpose of exchanging information (information-cognitive component) and for the

purpose of distributing tasks, results, roles, functions, time, place, etc. (regulatory and

organizational component).

In both the first and second groups of exercises, it is very important to provide

for the inclusion of special vocabulary as an information basis, namely, stable phrases,

clichés that allow for the expression of disagreement, refusal of something, the

impossibility of doing something, evaluating incorrectly or unsatisfactorily performed

work, while maintaining a positive emotional background, respect, goodwill.

CONCLUSION

Thus, emotive-empathic skills of an interpreter are quite specific. They suggest

that the future interpreter can:

– help communication partners positively tune in to joy, goodwill, respect,

sympathy for each other at the emotive level;

– assist in the beginning of interaction to establish positive emotional relations

of communication partners, their manifestation of joy, sympathy, respect, goodwill


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towards each other;

– be aware of the socio-cultural specifics of communication partners;

– accept positively (or neutrally) cultural differences and value systems of

representatives of another society;

– see and correctly understand the emotions and relationships of partners –

representatives of different cultures and languages – in the process of interaction,

taking into account possible discrepancies in the verbal and non-verbal expression of

these emotions and relationships;

– give a positive emotional coloring to the transmitted message;

– support, and if necessary, create through verbal and non-verbal means a

positive emotional attitude in the process of communication.

In the process of training interpreters in the cycle of disciplines of the practical

course of a foreign language, a foreign language communication and in the practice of

interpretation, it is necessary to include situations and exercises aimed at developing

the skills of emotional-empathic interaction.

The success of the process and the result of intercultural communication are

determined by the formation of the communicative skills of the emotive-empathic

interaction of an interpreter. The formation of these skills must begin in the first year

of professional training of an interpreter.

REFERENCES

1. Bartłomiejczyk M., Interpreting quality as perceived by trainee interpreters, Interpret.

Transl. Train. 1 (2) 2007, 247–267.

2. Bontempo, Karen, and Jemina Napier. “Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of

Interpreter Competence and Aptitude for Interpreting.” Interpreting 13 (1): 2011, 85–105.

3. Brisau, André, Rita Godijns, and Chris Meuleman. “Towards a Psycholinguistic Profile of

the Interpreter.” Meta 39 (1): 1994, –P. 87–94.

4. Davidson B., The interpreter as institutional gatekeeper: the social-linguistic

5. Ekman P., Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication

and Emotional Life, Time Books, New York, 2003.

6. Elfenbein H.A., Ambady N., On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion

recognition: a meta-analysis, Psychol. Bull. 128 (2), 2002. – P. 203–235

7. Knapp K. Sprachmittlertaetigkeit in interkultureller Kommunikation // Rehbein J. (Hg.):

Interkulturelle Kommunikation. – Tuebungen: Narr, 1985. – P. 451–463.

8. Pöchhacker, Franz. “Assessing Aptitude for Interpreting: The SynCloze Test.” Interpreting

13 (1): 2011, – P. 106–120.

9. Ramos Caro, Marina, and Ana Rojo. “‘Feeling’ Audio Description: Exploring the Impact of

AD on Emotional Response.” Translation Spaces 3: 2014, –P. 133–150.

10. Rojo, Ana, Marina Ramos Caro, and Javier Valenzuela. 2014. “The Emotional Impact of

Translation: A Heart Rate Study”. Journal of Pragmatics 71: –P. 31–44.

11. Rosiers, Alexandra, June Eyckmans, and Daniel Bauwens. 2011. “A Story of Attitudes and

Aptitudes? Investigating Individual Difference Variables within the Context of Interpreting.”

Interpreting 13 (1): 53–69.

12. Timarová, Šarka, and Harry Ungoed-Thomas. “Admission Testing for Interpreting

Courses.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 2 (1): 2008, –P. 29–46.

13. Wadensjö, Cecilia. 1998. Interpreting as Interaction. London: Longman.

14. Zimnyaya I. A. Psychological aspects of teaching speaking a foreign language. Moscow,

2005. 160 p.


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2020 Vol. 33 No. 3

15. Zimnyaya I. A. Psychology of teaching a foreign languages at school. Moscow,

Prosveshchenie, 1991, 220 p.

16. Izard K.E. Human emotions – М.: Moscow univ. publ.house, 1980.

17. Karpova Yu.A. Formation of communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction of the

future interpreter: Abstract of Pedagogics cand. diss. – Perm, 2011.

18. Karpova Yu.A., Serova T.S. Communicative skills of the interpreter's emotive-empathic

interaction in situations of oral consecutive two-way translation // Language and Culture.

3. – Tomsk, 2010.– pp. 108–118.

19. Kreylin G.E. Nonverbal Semiotics: Body Language And Natural Language. – М.: New

literary review, 2002.

20. Leont’ev А.А. Psychological aspects of personality and activity // Foreign languages at

school. 1974.

21. Leont’ev А.А. Rech' i obshcheniye // Foreign languages at school. 1974. #6 (2). pp. 80–85.

22. Leont’ev А.А. Language, speech and speech activity. М., 1969. –P.214.

23. Leont’ev А.N. Selected psychologically works. М., 1983. Т. 2.

24. Moshchanskaya Ye.YU. Moschanskaya E.Yu. Discourse in a situation of consecutive

interpretation // Theory and practice of translation and professional training of translators:

interpretation: materials of the international. scientific method. conf. (Perm, November 30

– December 2, 2007). – Perm: Publishing house of Perm state. tech. univ., 2008. – pp.

94–101.

25. Passov E.I. Пассов Е.И. Fundamentals of communicative methods of teaching foreign

language communication. М.: 1989.

26. Passov E.I. Situation, topic, social contact // General methodology, 1991, М.: Rus. yaz.

27. Serova T.S. Psychology of translation as a complex type of foreign language speech activity.

Perm: Publishing house of Perm state. tech. univ., 2008. – P. 211.

28. Serova T.S. Emotive-empathic component of foreign language business communication in

business // The Role of Universities in the International Integration of Regions: Proceedings

of the Intern. Scientific-practical conf. Tyumen: Tyumen State univ., 2006. pp.163–165.

29. Serova T.S., Goreva Т.А. Formation of communicative-speech interaction skills in teaching

foreign language business communication, 2005, Perm: Perm State tech. univ., –P.167.

30. Serova T.S., Maletina L.V. Teaching foreign language monologue speaking in conjunction

with informative reading in the process of professional training of a future engineer // Perm

Bulletin. State Tech. University. Problems of Linguistics and Pedagogy. 2010. # 4 (30). –

pp. 22–32.

31. Shadrikov V.D. Psychology of human activity and abilities. –М., 1996.

32. Shevandrin N.I. Social psychology in education: Textbook. allowance. M.: Vlados,

1995/2005. P554.

33. Ekman P. Psychology of emotions. I know what you feel. – SPb.: Piter, 2010.

Библиографические ссылки

Bartłomiejczyk M., Interpreting quality as perceived by trainee interpreters, Interpret. Transl. Train. 1 (2) 2007, 247–267.

Bontempo, Karen, and Jemina Napier. “Evaluating Emotional Stability as a Predictor of Interpreter Competence and Aptitude for Interpreting.” Interpreting 13 (1): 2011, 85–105.

Brisau, André, Rita Godijns, and Chris Meuleman. “Towards a Psycholinguistic Profile of the Interpreter.” Meta 39 (1): 1994, –P. 87–94.

Davidson B., The interpreter as institutional gatekeeper: the social-linguistic

Ekman P., Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life, Time Books, New York, 2003.

Elfenbein H.A., Ambady N., On the universality and cultural specificity of emotion recognition: a meta-analysis, Psychol. Bull. 128 (2), 2002. – P. 203–235

Knapp K. Sprachmittlertaetigkeit in interkultureller Kommunikation // Rehbein J. (Hg.): Interkulturelle Kommunikation. – Tuebungen: Narr, 1985. – P. 451–463.

Pöchhacker, Franz. “Assessing Aptitude for Interpreting: The SynCloze Test.” Interpreting 13 (1): 2011, – P. 106–120.

Ramos Caro, Marina, and Ana Rojo. “‘Feeling’ Audio Description: Exploring the Impact of AD on Emotional Response.” Translation Spaces 3: 2014, –P. 133–150.

Rojo, Ana, Marina Ramos Caro, and Javier Valenzuela. 2014. “The Emotional Impact of Translation: A Heart Rate Study”. Journal of Pragmatics 71: –P. 31–44.

Rosiers, Alexandra, June Eyckmans, and Daniel Bauwens. 2011. “A Story of Attitudes and Aptitudes? Investigating Individual Difference Variables within the Context of Interpreting.” Interpreting 13 (1): 53–69.

Timarová, Šarka, and Harry Ungoed-Thomas. “Admission Testing for Interpreting Courses.” The Interpreter and Translator Trainer 2 (1): 2008, –P. 29–46.

Wadensjö, Cecilia. 1998. Interpreting as Interaction. London: Longman.

Zimnyaya I. A. Psychological aspects of teaching speaking a foreign language. Moscow, 2005. 160 p.Series: THEORY AND PRACTICE OF TRANSLATION 2020 Vol. 33 No. 3

Zimnyaya I. A. Psychology of teaching a foreign languages at school. Moscow, Prosveshchenie, 1991, 220 p.

Izard K.E. Human emotions – М.: Moscow univ. publ.house, 1980.

Karpova Yu.A. Formation of communicative skills of emotive-empathic interaction of the future interpreter: Abstract of Pedagogics cand. diss. – Perm, 2011.

Karpova Yu.A., Serova T.S. Communicative skills of the interpreter's emotive-empathic interaction in situations of oral consecutive two-way translation // Language and Culture. 3. – Tomsk, 2010.– pp. 108–118.

Kreylin G.E. Nonverbal Semiotics: Body Language And Natural Language. – М.: New literary review, 2002.

Leont’ev А.А. Psychological aspects of personality and activity // Foreign languages at school. 1974.

Leont’ev А.А. Rech' i obshcheniye // Foreign languages at school. 1974. #6 (2). pp. 80–85.

Leont’ev А.А. Language, speech and speech activity. М., 1969. –P.214.

Leont’ev А.N. Selected psychologically works. М., 1983. Т. 2.

Moshchanskaya Ye.YU. Moschanskaya E.Yu. Discourse in a situation of consecutive interpretation // Theory and practice of translation and professional training of translators: interpretation: materials of the international. scientific method. conf. (Perm, November 30 – December 2, 2007). – Perm: Publishing house of Perm state. tech. univ., 2008. – pp. 94–101.

Passov E.I. Пассов Е.И. Fundamentals of communicative methods of teaching foreign language communication. М.: 1989.

Passov E.I. Situation, topic, social contact // General methodology, 1991, М.: Rus. yaz.

Serova T.S. Psychology of translation as a complex type of foreign language speech activity. Perm: Publishing house of Perm state. tech. univ., 2008. – P. 211.

Serova T.S. Emotive-empathic component of foreign language business communication in business // The Role of Universities in the International Integration of Regions: Proceedings of the Intern. Scientific-practical conf. Tyumen: Tyumen State univ., 2006. pp.163–165.

Serova T.S., Goreva Т.А. Formation of communicative-speech interaction skills in teaching foreign language business sommunication, 2005, Perm: Perm State tech. univ., –P.167.

Serova T.S., Maletina L.V. Teaching foreign language monologue speaking in conjunction with informative reading in the process of professional training of a future engineer // Perm Bulletin. State Tech. University. Problems of Linguistics and Pedagogy. 2010. # 4 (30). – pp. 22–32.

Shadrikov V.D. Psychology of human activity and abilities. –М., 1996.

Shevandrin N.I. Social psychology in education: Textbook. allowance. M.: Vlados, 1995/2005. P554.

Ekman P. Psychology of emotions. I know what you feel. – SPb.: Piter, 2010.

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