Современные аспекты развития человеческого капитала как метод улучшения рынка труда Узбекистана

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Муминов, Н., & Эгамбердиева O. (2020). Современные аспекты развития человеческого капитала как метод улучшения рынка труда Узбекистана. in Library, 20(4), 237–240. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/22357
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Аннотация

В современном мире вопросы развития человеческого капитала с позиции совершенствования рынка труда становятся очень актуальными. Для этого необходимо уделить внимание повышению качества потенциального трудового ресурса, совершенствованию системы образования, а также цифровизации экономических отношений.

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MODERN ASPECTS OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AS A METHOD

FOR IMPROVING THE LABOR MARKET OF UZBEKISTAN

N. Muminov,

Cand. econ. Sciences,

Professor,

O. Egamberdieva

National University of Uzbekistan named after Mirzo Ulugbek, Tashkent


In the modern world, the issues of human capital development from the perspective

of improving the labor market are becoming very relevant. To do this, it is necessary to pay
attention to improving the quality of the potential labor resource, improving the education
system, as well as the digitalization of economic relations.

In the published report of the World Bank Human Capital Index 2020, the human cap-

ital index in Uzbekistan was estimated at 62% - the same for the Republic of Mauritius [1].

This means that the labor productivity of a child born in Uzbekistan today, upon reaching

the age of majority, will be 62% of his potential productivity, which is provided on condition
of receiving a complete education and good health. This is lower than the average for the Europe
and Central Asia region, but higher than the average for lower-middle-income countries.

The closest neighbors are Malaysia, Mongolia, Oman, Peru, Thailand (61%), Albania,

Costa Rica, Montenegro, Kazakhstan and Brunei (63%).

The first places in the ranking are Singapore (88%), Hong Kong (81%) and Japan (80%).

The top ten also includes South Korea, Canada, Finland, Sweden and Macau (80% each), Ire-
land and the Netherlands (79%). The last places in the rating are the Central African Republic
(29%), Chad (30%) and South Sudan (31%).

The study notes that countries like Uzbekistan perform better than their GDP per cap-

ita could predict. Variations in the quantity and quality of schooling are a major contributor to
the difference between low- and high-income countries.

The World Bank also provides other indicators for Uzbekistan:

Survival under 5 years of age. 98 out of 100 children live to be 5 years old;

Expected length of schooling. For a child receiving preschool education from the

age of 4, according to the forecast, by the age of 18, the duration of schooling will be 12 years;

Unified test results. The learning outcome of students is assessed at 474 points on

a scale, where 625 points correspond to a high level of educational results, and 300 points -
to the minimum level;

Length of schooling adjusted for quality of education. Taking into account the

amount of knowledge actually acquired by students, the expected duration of schooling is
only 9.1 years;

Adult survival rate. 87% of those who are 15 years old today will survive to the age

of 60. This statistic is an indirect indicator of a number of health risks that a child born today
will face in adulthood under current conditions;

Healthy growth (percentage of children with no developmental delay). 89 out of

100 children do not lag behind in development. 11 out of 100 children are developmentally
delayed and are at risk of cognitive and physical disabilities that may persist for life;


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As for the difference in the index by gender, in Uzbekistan it is higher for girls than for boys:

Table 1. – Human development index according to gender and socio-economic status [2]

Component

boys

girls

general

Human development index

0.61

0.63

0.62

Survival under 5 years

0.98

0.98

0.98

School duration expected

12.1

12.0

12.0

Unified Test Results

475

474

474

Length of schooling adjusted for quality of education

9.2

9.1

9.1

Adult survival rate

0.83

0.90

0.87

Percentage of children without developmental delay

0.89

0.90

0.89

A key factor in the success of digitalization processes, along with the development

of digital infrastructure, is the availability of a sufficient number of highly qualified personnel
and a flexible training system with certain competencies for the development and implemen-
tation of digital technologies.

For the development of the education system in the republic, attention must be paid

to each stage of education, from preschool to postgraduate education. As the experience
of countries with developed economies shows, it is necessary to implement the relationship
between state and self-financed educational institutions for a single goal: to obtain high-qual-
ity personnel that meet international standards. “The fact of the emergence and development
of non-state services in the field of education in Uzbekistan will indicate that they are in de-
mand by society, will fill the deficit of needs at every stage of education. Citizens who pay for
education will help to somehow relieve the state of funding education” [3, p. 44].

Digitalization is fundamentally changing the labor market. Along with the spread

of information technology in all walks of life, digital skills are becoming critical requirements
for employers. This will lead to a large-scale transformation of the requirements for special-
ists, since many processes that were not affected by the previous stages of the introduction
of digital technologies can be automated in the near future.

Already, the development of technology, the digital transformation of the state and busi-

ness, and the growth of competition for jobs lead workers to the need to change the field of pro-
fessional activity several times during their lives, acquiring new competencies and skills. To remain
in demand in the labor market, a person must acquire new knowledge faster than it was before.

The very concept of a profession is being transformed, since the set of competencies

that an employee who has received training in a particular profession or specialty should pos-
sess ceases to be fixed and changes with the development of new technologies and their ap-
plication in various industries.

It is necessary to reconsider approaches to teaching, transformation of educational

models. Key challenges facing education today include creating educational content that
meets the requirements of a dynamically changing labor market and human needs, as well as
reducing costs through the use of technology. The most urgent tasks facing the education sys-
tem are lifelong learning or lifelong learning, distance learning, mentoring, blended learning
(learning using all possible communication channels), project-oriented learning, self-learning
organizations and others.


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It should be noted that the government is not currently the only provider of digital

skills training. Employers and companies, both at the republican and regional levels, play
a role in the development of skills in working with digital technologies and are equally inter-
ested in a radical change in the current situation in the field of education and professional
development of specialists [4].

An important aspect of the development of the digital skills of the population is the

reduction of the “digital divide” regionally, in terms of age and gender. In this regard, the
state needs to introduce methods for assessing digital competencies among different seg-
ments of the population and identify sectors in which the increase in digital skills can be
more actively stimulated, in order to ensure equitable access to digital dividends among
the population.

The priority tasks for the development of human capital are:
a) creating opportunities for mastering digital skills by ensuring at the earliest stage of

the educational ladder students' contact with digital technologies, developing analytical and
critical thinking, providing young people with the knowledge and skills necessary for further
work in the context of large-scale digital transformation [5];

b) development of scientific potential in the field of digital technologies through the

formation of the necessary environment, stimulation of researchers in the field of information
and telecommunication and digital technologies, the activity of the scientific community, the
development of "data science", conducting and promoting scientific research and discoveries,
the formation of research institutes and centers, the allocation of state grants, as well as the
creation of the necessary conditions for strengthening the synergistic cooperation of science,
production and education;

c) amending the accreditation requirements and conditions of educational institu-

tions, with a view to introducing new innovative teaching methods, providing the ability
to track the proper quality of education, adapting at the same time to use innovative ap-
proaches to assessing the level of education received for compliance with the requirements
of state training programs;

d) creating a favorable environment and culture of lifelong education using the capa-

bilities of the Internet and mobile technologies, adapting curricula to changing market needs
in order to maintain a qualified workforce capable of keeping pace with the times;

e) increasing flexibility in the education system in order to transform the sphere, en-

sure access to quality education, reduce training costs through the use and implementation
of digital technologies, education management models aimed at the real needs of both stu-
dents and employers in the private sector of the economy and the state in the whole;

f) transition to digital educational materials in education, by providing state support

and developing uniform requirements for the use of formats for digitizing materials on paper;

g) providing reliable and open information about the labor market, in particular about

the industries and spheres that will develop in the future, about the necessary skills in these
industries and the requirements for the competencies of future employees, as well as about
forecast indicators to provide an opportunity for society to take important decisions regarding
their work activities, including the improvement of certain skills;


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h) state support for workers affected by the automation and digitalization of industries

by taking measures to create conditions for improving their skills, retraining or moving to new
areas of employment [6];

i) implementation of programs in the field of stimulating outsourcing and freelancing

services in order to provide society with the opportunity to provide services and perform work
remotely, by creating the necessary regulatory framework, a favorable tax environment,
attracting large foreign outsourcing and freelancing platforms.

References

1.

Human Capital in the time of COVID-19 [Electronic resource] / World Bank. Washington, DC //
The

Human

Capital

Index

2020

Update.

2020.

Mode

of

access:

https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle10986/34432 License: CC BY 3. 0 IGO.

2.

Нuman-capital [Electronic resource] / World Bank. – Mode of access: https://www.world-
bank.org/en/publication/human-capital/brief/insighhhhts-from-disaggregating-the-human-capi-
tal-index.

3.

Захирова, Г.М. Возможности практического применения мирового опыта развития системы об-
разования в Узбекистане / Г.М. Захирова // Экономика и финансы (Узбекистан). – № 12. – С. 44.

4.

Digital Uzbekistan – 2030 strategies [Electronic resource] / Application 1 of the Decree number
PD-6079 of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan proclaimed in 5th of October. – Mode
of access: https://lex.uz/ru/docs/5030957 (in Uzb).

5.

Muminov, N. Restructuring the system of higher education of Uzbekistan in the conditions of in-
creasing the competitiveness of the economy [Electronic resource] / N. Muminov, P. Hoshimov,
T. Kim [etc.] // American Journal of Economics and Business Management. – 2020. – № 3(1). –
P. 32-40. – Mode of access: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31150/ajebm.v3i1.112.

6.

Хашимова, Н.А. Особенности использования трудовых ресурсов в Республике Узбекистан /
Н.А. Хашимова // Экономика и социум. Россия. – 2019. – № 7 (62).

СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ЧЕЛОВЕЧЕСКОГО КАПИТАЛА

КАК МЕТОД СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ РЫНКА ТРУДА УЗБЕКИСТАНА

В современном мире вопросы развития человеческого капитала в ракурсе со-

вершенствования рынка труда становиться очень актуальным. Для этого необходимо
обратить внимание на повышение качества потенциального трудового ресурса, совер-
шенствование системы образования, а также цифровизация экономических отноше-
ний. Для развития системы образования в республике нужно уделять внимание каж-
дой ступени образование начиная от дошкольного до послевузовского образования.
Цифровизация существенным образом меняет рынок труда. Наряду с распростране-
нием информационных технологий во всех сферах жизни, цифровые навыки стано-
вятся критически важными требованиями, предъявляемыми работодателями.

Библиографические ссылки

Human Capital in the time of COVID-19 [Electronic resource] / World Bank. Washington, DC // The Human Capital Index 2020 Update. – 2020. – Mode of access: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle10986/34432 License: CC BY 3. 0 IGO.

Нuman-capital [Electronic resource] / World Bank. – Mode of access: https://www.world-bank.org/en/publication/human-capital/brief/insighhhhts-from-disaggregating-the-human-capi-tal-index.

Захирова, Г.М. Возможности практического применения мирового опыта развития системы образования в Узбекистане / Г.М. Захирова // Экономика и финансы (Узбекистан). – № 12. – С. 44.

Digital Uzbekistan – 2030 strategies [Electronic resource] / Application 1 of the Decree number PD-6079 of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan proclaimed in 5th of October. – Mode of access: https://lex.uz/ru/docs/5030957 (in Uzb).

Muminov, N. Restructuring the system of higher education of Uzbekistan in the conditions of in-creasing the competitiveness of the economy [Electronic resource] / N. Muminov, P. Hoshimov, T. Kim [etc.] // American Journal of Economics and Business Management. – 2020. – № 3(1). – P. 32-40. – Mode of access: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.31150/ajebm.v3i1.112.

Хашимова, Н.А. Особенности использования трудовых ресурсов в Республике Узбекистан / Н.А. Хашимова // Экономика и социум. Россия. – 2019. – № 7 (62).

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