Перевод – важная часть лингвистики

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Расулова, З., & Расулова, Ш. (2023). Перевод – важная часть лингвистики. in Library, 21(2), 190–193. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/24240
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Аннотация

The article is devoted to the topic of theory and translation tasks. In the article, the author touches upon the problem that researchers may face in the process of translation.

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190

TRANSLATION IS AN IMPORTANT PART OF LINGUISTICS

Rasulova Zulfiya Kholmurotovna

Lecturer at the Denau Institute of Entrepreneurship and Pedagogy

shakhnoza.rasulova.02@mail.ru

Rasulova Shakhnoza Iskandarovna
Student of Termez State University


Annotation

The article is devoted to the topic of theory and translation tasks. In the article, the author
touches upon the problem that researchers may face in the process of translation.


Keywords:

translation studies, activity, theory, task, goal, scientific analysis,

linguistics, translation problems, communication.
Among the many complex problems that modern linguistics studies, an important place
is occupied by the study of linguistic aspects of interlingual speech activity, which is
called "translation" or "translation activity". [13]. Translation is a complex multifaceted
phenomenon, some aspects of which can be the subject of research in various sciences.
Within the framework of translation studies, psychological, literary, ethnographic and
other aspects of translation activities are studied, as well as the history of translation
activities in a particular country or countries. Depending on the subject of research, one
can single out psychological translation studies (translation psychology), literary
translation studies (the theory of literary or literary translation), ethnographic
translation studies, historical translation studies, etc. The leading place in modern
translation studies belongs to linguistic translation studies (translation linguistics),
which studies translation as linguistic phenomenon. Certain types of translation studies
complement each other, striving for a comprehensive description of translation
activities. The purpose of translation is to acquaint the reader as closely as possible with
a text in a foreign language, which he does not know. "... to translate means to express
correctly and completely by means of one language that which has already been
expressed earlier by means of another language." [fourteen]. Translation can be carried
out, firstly, from one language to another unrelated, related, closely related, secondly,
from a literary language to a dialect and vice versa, thirdly, from the language of the
ancient period into a modern language. Many outstanding Russian writers and public
figures paid much attention to translation. The social significance of translation activity
was emphasized by AS Pushkin, who called translators "post horses of enlightenment";
VG Belinsky, NG Chernyshevsky, NA Dobrolyubov gave an important place to translation
in their works. The reasons for the existence of the translation business: the presence of
different languages, different cultures and mentalities. Translation is a way to overcome
language and cultural barriers. Language barriers are absolute values, cultural barriers


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are relative, but no less complex, obstacles to communication. [13]. So what are the tasks
of translation theory? This question was partially answered by the English researcher T.
Savory. He brought together the basic requirements for translation by various authors,
and received an interesting list, where mutually exclusive principles are placed side by
side: the translation must convey the words of the original; the translation should convey
the thoughts of the original; the translation must be read like the original; the translation
should be read like a translation; the translation must reflect the style of the original; the
translation must reflect the style of the translator; the translation should be read as a
work contemporary to the original; the translation should be read like a work
contemporary to the translator; the translation can be supplemented and omitted; the
translation should not allow additions and omissions; translation of poems should be
carried out in prose; translation of poems should be carried out in poetic form. [12]. This
shows once again the complexity of the object itself and the difficulty in defining the tasks
and goals of translation theory. What translation theory gives: - translation theory shows
the patterns of performing certain translation actions and ways to solve translation
problems - translation theory helps translators and translation editors in defending
certain solutions, in arguing in favor of a certain translation option; - translation theory
acts as a tool for criticizing literary translation, improves its quality; - translation theory
plays an important role in the field of contrastive (comparative) linguistics. Based on the
foregoing, we can conclude that the theory of translation sets itself the following main
tasks: - to reveal and describe the general linguistic foundations of translation, that is, to
indicate what features of language systems and the laws of the functioning of languages
lie at the basis of the translation process, make this process possible and define its
character and boundaries; - define translation as an object of linguistic research, indicate
its difference from other types of linguistic mediation; - to develop the basis for the
classification of types of translation activities; - to reveal the essence of translation
equivalence as the basis of the communicative equivalence of the original and translation
texts; - to develop general principles and features of the construction of private and
special theories of translation for various combinations of languages; - to develop general
principles for the scientific description of the translation process as the actions of the
translator converting the original text into the translation text; - to reveal the impact of
pragmatic and sociolinguistic factors on the translation process; - define the concept of
"translation rate" and develop principles for assessing the quality of translation.
Translation theory is a part of macrolinguistics, which takes into account extralinguistic
factors that affect the creation of a speech work, its interpretation and translation. [12].
"... the main subject of attention for the theory of translation is the relationship between
the original and the translation and the difference in those forms that they take in specific
cases that require explanation and generalization." [fourteen]. The theory of translation
in its linguistic aspect analyzes, explains and summarizes the facts of translation
experience, establishes correspondences and discrepancies between languages. "


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[fourteen]. On the basis of the general patterns revealed by the theory of translation,
specific conclusions can be made in the future in relation to particular cases. The “field
material” for research is the source and translation texts, the comparison of which
provides objective factual data for subsequent theoretical generalizations. Thus, the
study of translation sets as its goal, first of all, the description of real translation facts.
Having ascertained the actual ratio of units of the two languages, arising in the process
of translation, the theory of translation can then develop recommendations on what
methods it is advisable to use the translator to ensure the correct choice of the translation
option. " [eleven]. Translation theory examines translation as a special type of speech
activity and analyzes its linguistic mechanism. The subject of translation theory
according to A.D. Schweitzer is the process of translation in a wide socio-cultural context,
taking into account the extra-linguistic factors influencing it (social, cultural and
psychological determinants). [fifteen]. The general theory of translation creates a
conceptual apparatus for describing a translation, reveals its general laws and invariant
features, creates a basis for particular theories of translation, considers the following
problems: - the essence of translation; - equivalence; - translatability; - translation
norms; - pragmatic and semantic translation problems. VN Komissarov rightly expands
the subject of translation theory to the study of the features of different types of linguistic
mediation, which, as a rule, were taken outside the scope of the subject of translation
theory. Translation and other types of linguistic mediation are the subject of study of the
science of translation - translation studies. [eleven]. Translation theory is, first of all, a
descriptive theoretical discipline that identifies and describes the objective laws of the
translation process, which are based on the features of the structure and rules of
functioning of the languages involved in this process. In other words, the theory of
translation describes not what should be, but what is, what constitutes the nature of the
phenomenon under study. At the same time, on the basis of the description of the
linguistic mechanism of translation, it is possible to formulate some normative
recommendations, principles and rules, methods and techniques of translation,
following which the translator can more successfully solve the tasks facing him. In all
cases, scientific analysis of observed facts precedes regulatory prescriptions.
Normative recommendations developed on the basis of translation research can be used
both in translation practice and in the preparation of future translators. The ability to
use such recommendations, modifying them depending on the nature of the translated
text and conditions, and the tasks of a particular translation act, is an important part of
translation skills. Knowledge of regulatory requirements does not imply a thoughtless,
mechanical implementation of these requirements by the translator. Translation, in any
case, is a creative thinking activity, the implementation of which requires from the
translator a whole range of knowledge, skills and abilities, the ability to make the right
choice, taking into account the entire set of linguistic and extralinguistic factors.
Consideration of such factors is largely intuitive, as a result of a creative act, and


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individual translators, to varying degrees, have the ability to successfully carry out the
translation process. A high degree of this skill is called the art of translation.

Literature:

1. Kashkin IA Questions of translation. Q: Translation is a means of mutual
rapprochement between peoples. M., 1987.
2. Klyukanov IE Dynamics of intercultural communication. Systemic-semiotic research.
Tver, 1998.
3. Klyukanov IE Psycholinguistic problems of translation. Kalinin, 1989.
4. Komissarov VN Word about translation (sketch of linguistic teaching about
translation). M., "International Relations", 1973. 5. Kopanev PI Questions of history and
theory of literary translation. Minsk, 1972.
6. Komissarov VN The theory of translation (linguistic aspects): Textbook for institutes
and faculty. foreign lang. - M .: Higher. shk., 1990 .-- 253 p.
7. Komissarov V.N. Linguistic foundations of scientific and technical translation //
Manual on scientific and technical translation. - M., 1980. - Part I.
8. Retsker Ya. I. Translation theory and translation practice. - M., 1974.
9. A. A. Reformatsky "Introduction to linguistics" M., 2001.

Библиографические ссылки

Kashkin IA Questions of translation. Q: Translation is a means of mutual rapprochement between peoples. M., 1987.

Klyukanov IE Dynamics of intercultural communication. Systemic-semiotic research. Tver, 1998.

Klyukanov IE Psycholinguistic problems of translation. Kalinin, 1989.

Komissarov VN Word about translation (sketch of linguistic teaching about translation). M., "International Relations", 1973. 5. Kopanev PI Questions of history and theory of literary translation. Minsk, 1972.

Komissarov VN The theory of translation (linguistic aspects): Textbook for institutes and faculty. foreign lang. - M .: Higher. shk., 1990 .-- 253 p.

Komissarov V.N. Linguistic foundations of scientific and technical translation // Manual on scientific and technical translation. - M., 1980. - Part I.

Retsker Ya. I. Translation theory and translation practice. - M., 1974.

A. A. Reformatsky "Introduction to linguistics" M., 2001.

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