Visual technologies based on the principles of demonstration is the foundation for pre-schoolers’ education

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Кубаева, М. (2024). Visual technologies based on the principles of demonstration is the foundation for pre-schoolers’ education . in Library, 22(2), 189–200. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/28647
Мавлюда Кубаева, Навоийский государственный педагогический институт
Преподаватель кафедры дошкольного образования
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Аннотация

The article outlines the information about various visual technologies based on the principles of demonstration and their impact on the representational thought of pre-school learners. It also discusses the significance of the development of education of pre-school learners. Visual imaginative thinking emerges in the child when solving new demands and practical tasks. In this process, the child tries to know the truth and searches different options.

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189

Mental Enlightenment Scientific-methodological Journal

June, 2022, № 4

VISUAL TECHNOLOGIES BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF

DEMONSTRATION IS THE FOUNDATION FOR PRE-SCHOOLERS’

EDUCATION

Kubaeva Mavluda Bakhtiyor qizi

Teacher of Preschool Education Department

Navoi State Pedagogical Institute Uzbekistan

E-mail address:

mavludakubaeva90@gmail.com

Abstract

. The article outlines the information about various visual

technologies based on the principles of demonstration and their impact on the

representational thought of pre-school learners. It also discusses the significance of

the development of education of pre-school learners. Visual-imaginative thinking

emerges in the child when solving new demands and practical tasks. In this

process, the child tries to know the truth and searches different options.

Keywords:

visual technology, visualization(imaging), the principle of

demonstration, visualization of educational materials, visual-representational

thought of pre-school learners, visual learners.

INTRODUCTION

Visual technology

is the engineering discipline dealing with visual

representation of the audio, video, textual, graphical and animational effects used

for conveying necessary information and teaching materials to learners.

The word “visualization” is derived from Latin word visualis “of sight” and

means “perceptible by sight” or “expository”.

Visuality

is the general term used for the methods of seeing, observing, and

analyzing digital information or a physical phenomenon. [11]


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LITERATURE REVIEW

A.A.Verbitsky, the Russian educational psychologist, presented the

following remarks on visuality: “Visuality is decreasing ofthinking process in the

visual representation, and it is when the perceived image (representation) serves as

a tool for broad thinking and various practical actions.” [3] This definition allows

us to distinguish between the concepts of “visual”, “visual aids” and

“demonstrative”, “demonstration aids.”

The concept of “demonstrative” as a pedagogical concept is based not on the

inner plans of a person, but on the presentation of specific outside objects,

processes, events etc.that are mainly based on displayingacompleted image. It

helps to reveal the image of thoughts, that is it demonstrates the development of

the mental image in the production of inner image letting to come outwards.This

projection is built on the process of interaction of the subject and objects of the

material world, which is based on the mechanisms of thinking and is reflected in

various forms of education. [3]

So, A.A. Verbitsky was the creator of theconcepts of “demonstration” and

“visualization” in pedagogy. The main difference between demonstration and

visuality (visualization) is that the

demonstration aid

is an object that represents a

particular image, and the

visual aid

is an outcome(a final product) of a human

mental activity which leads to some final result.

T.T.Sidelnikovadefines the term visualization as “a pedagogical method

based on the principle of demonstration, in which schemes and images represent

content, process, function, structure and stages of any phenomenon on the base of

various symbols.” [10]

According to A.P.Malkina, this process gives an opportunity to “increase the

internal activityof the receiver, his/her semantic perception of visual aids such as

drawings, diagrams, tables, pictures, photographs, etc. and data processing.” [7]


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In his research, D.R.Boboeva claims thatvisualization helps children learn,

remember, and memorize things easily and effectively that directly affect their

senses, especially their vision. [2] The proverb “It is better to see once than to hear

a thousand times” is a valid evidence for that.

In her research, D.R.Boboeva notes that children are more likely to

remember what they see (pictures, slides, educator's actions, or stories with a series

of illustrations) than they hear. [2]

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

It is necessary to point out that the systematic organization of children's

education at pre-schooling stage is very important. Visual-imaginative thinking

serves as a foundation for the education and upbringing of pre-school learners.

Visual-imaginative thinking emerges in the child when solving new

demands and practical tasks. In this process, the child tries to know the truth and

searches different options.

Visual-imaginative thinking is the process of having various images in the

human mind while dealing with problems. [8]

One of the effective ways of active learning is a method of visualization of

educational materials, which has an extensive educational value and meets the

modern teaching requirements. Visualization is reliedupon the principle of

demonstration.

The principle of demonstration is one of the leading principles in pedagogy.

It is one of the principles that is known and understood by all, and has been utilized

since ancient times. The principle of demonstration is predicated on the following

regulations:

First, the information obtained through seeing and hearing has different

effectson the brain and stores differently. That is, eyes receive five times more

information than we hear it with our ears, and consequently, the level of its storage

in the brain is also higher;

Second, the information received by the eyes does not need to be processed.


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Pedagogical practice has developed a number of guidelines for the implementation

of this principle:

1. What learners see in the process of learning is assimilated several times faster

than what they hear, and this information is stored in their minds longer.

2. Children always think through shapes, colors, feelings, and sounds.

3. Children are able to think on the base of imagination, seeing, remembering, and

hearing.

4. Demonstration shouldn’t be a primary goal. It should serve not as a goal, butas a

means to an end.

5. In the process of teaching and turning it into children’s skill, we should

understand that all concepts and abstract notions can be perceived by them only

through various facts, evidences, examples, symbols and images.

6. Visual aids shouldn’t be used only for demonstration the things, but also to form

different case studies.

7. Visual aids serve not only for the provision of information, but they also help to

create a clear imagination of what is being studied.

8. To demonstrate visual aids according to their appropriate order will lead to

positive results.

9. During the demonstration of visual aids, first, we should present them as a whole

picture, then, we have to deal with its parts and again we should come back to the

whole representation.

10. It is good to use a variety of visual aids, but their quantity should not be

excessive because they can easily distractchildren’s minds.

11. During the demonstration of visual aids we should take an effective use of

children’s previously acquired emotional state.

12. It shouldn’t be forgotten that the best visual aid is the aid prepared by children

themselves, therefore, if possible prepare the visual aids together with children.

13. Never show children something you don’t know well.


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14. Before using new technical facilities such as television, videos, computers etc.,

pedagogues must master them first.

15. When using visual aids educators should master their learners in developing

their concentration, thinking culture, constructive thinking and interest in reading.

16. Pedagogues should use visual aids to able their learners to combine theoretical

knowledge with their life.

17. When using the cabinet system, the possibility of using the demonstration

method expands, for that reason, the order of demonstrating visual aids should be

thoroughly planned beforehand.

18. Educators should take the age characteristics of learners when using various

visual aids.

19. Visual aids are very powerfully influencing tools as they strongly attract

learners’ minds. They also might distract them from the main objective of a lesson.

20. The excessive usage of the visuals can also hinder the development of learners’

abstract thinking. [5]

Many ideas have been put forward by pedagogical scholars on the use of the

principles of demonstration of visuals in the system of education and upbringing of

various learners. According to the philosophy of the great scholar Abu Nasr al-

Farabi, disciples(learners) are divided into three categories: the first group of

learners can study the materials independently; the second category of learners

should be forced to learn the things; the third group of learners has the opportunity

to master the learning materials under the guidance of their instructors. [1] The use

of the principles of demonstration of visual aids in the process of pre-school

education will help learners to accelerate their learning practice and easily master

the teaching materials. The effective use of demonstration methods and tools at the

right time will always lead to positive results.

The outstanding Czech pedagogue Jan Amos Comenius, the founder of

pedagogical science, spoke about the importance of demonstration of visuals and

its impact on the educational process and learners’ visual-imaginative thinking in


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his famous work “The Great Didactics”. He presents the following ideas in his

work: “Human emotions can be affected, and everything that is visible, audible,

fragrant, and tasteful can be felt through the senses. If an object is surrounded by

several emotions at a time, our emotions can perceive them all at once.”[6]

The active use of various tables, diagrams and charts helps to quickly

remember and understand the material being studied. Taking into consideration the

modern technical opportunities, we can notice that the demonstration of visual

information in the learning process will obtain new features.

In a broad sense visualization can be defined as the process of presenting

information in the form of an image to maximize the ease of comprehension for

learners. The technology of visualization of educational materials is based on the

importance of a person’s visual perception and the leading role of figurative

cognition in the process of awareness; it also serves to increase the ever-needed

readiness of a person and his/her consciousness to the conditions of the visualized

world.

The technology of visualization of educational materials functions as a

current pedagogical technology and is widely implemented by a number of

pedagogues in modern educational institutions. The visualization of educational

materials is a system that includes the following aspects:

a set of educational knowledge;

visual methods of their demonstration;

visual and technical means of information transmission;

a set of psychological methods of applying and developing visual thinking in the

processof learning.

The technology of visualization of educational materials is based on the

rules of importance of visual perception in the process of knowing the world, the

leading role of the image in the process of human perception and understanding

and the need to prepare a person’s visual perception.


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On the basis of educational visual technologies it is possible to simplify the

content of education, modernize the learning process, creatively activate the

learners, and in that way update and accelerate the forms of education for pre-

school learners. The functions of accelerating the education of preschoolers on the

basis of educational visual technologies are usually reflected in the following:

the presentation of the content of teaching materials;

ensuring psychophysiological and psychological convenience of learning;

the provision of secretive diagnostics of teaching effectiveness.

There are a number of advantages of the implementation of visual

technologies in teaching preschoolers:

The visual technologies benefit learners to properly organize and analyze the

information; they help them to acquirevarious schemes, diagrams, charts, cognitive

maps etc. that contribute to the assimilation of large amounts of information. These

technologies alsohelp to facilitate learners’ memory and observe the connections

between blocks of information;

Visual technologies allow learners to connect the received information to the

complete image of the certain event or object;

Visual technologies help learners to quickly acquire the large amounts of

information;

Visual technologies permitlearners to review and reconstruct various processes

and events;

Visual technologies make the educational materials more interesting and

memorable.

The systemic mental activity of a person is characterized by various signs

such as verbal, symbolic and graphic. Different types of models used to express

knowledge in a compact form correspond to a person’s ability to think with the

help of images. Studying the text, assimilating and thinking are considered the

processes of schematization the information and the organization of the materialin

the mind. If necessary, a person can restore the whole text and expand it.


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The principles of visualization of educational materials include the

following:

Learning materialscompacted in a particular system are better acquired by

learners;

Separation of strongersemantic points of the learning materials help learners to

memorize them effectively;

Short and compact materials benefitlearners to study the oral informationmore

profoundly and to answer various questions related to the learning materials;

They help to develop learners’ imagination and fantasy;

They determine the nature of individual perceptions and processing of

educational information;

They activate learners’ cognitive interests;

They help learners to focus on important things and shift their focus to other

objects;

They stimulate certain associations;

They help to develop the ability to analyze and compare;

They support learners in increasing their attention and observation;

They form learners’ ability to draw logical conclusions;

They develop critical thinking;

They help to integrate new knowledge;

They help to control over the completeness and assimilation of information

provided by the educators;

The obtained information is linked to a complete description of a particular

object or event.

The principle of visualization emerges from certain psychological laws.

According to the principle, assimilation efficiency increases when visualization

performs not only a visual but also a cognitive function in the process of learning,

i.e. using cognitive graphic learning elements. At the same time, the foundations

such drawings, diagrams, models etc. that present a compact content contribute to


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the structure of knowledge because it is all the time difficult to remember a large

amount of materials for learners.

In early ages, only visually effective and visually-imaginative forms of

thinking are widely appliedand that ensure the understanding and assimilation of

specially selected and age-appropriate information.

L.S. Vygotsky, a well-known Soviet psychologist, found that a preschool

child can have an imagination about the creation of things and the universe as well

as the connections and relationships between them. [4] According to L.S.

Vygotskyat this stage of life a child can draw certain conclusions not only about

individual things, but also about how they can relate to each other. This principle is

widely applied in the educational process (until the beginning and end of the

academic year) through the use of a systematic program.

According to N.N.Poddyakov, visual-imaginative thinking develops rapidly

in the process of solvingnumerous problems at preschool age. There are several

ways of representing the being through imagination: the complexity of the

depiction of existing things, the enrichment of properties due to the practical

activities or by other means; the emergence of the ability to communicate with

other objects through imagination in the process of knowing objects. [9]

Children who perceive the world through visualization better understand and

remember what they see. They can look at pictures for hours, and in their speech

they can quite often use the phrases such as “I saw, I looked at, I glanced at, Ipaid

attention to” etc.The child not only remembers the plot of the film, but also

describes in detail the costumes and clothes of the personages as well ascourse of

events. For that reason the color background is so important for their perception.

Through visualization, the child learns to distinguish different shapes, sizes, colors

of objects and can easily repeat previously seen actions or movements.

A traditional education and upbringing system based on the principles of

visualization and description is very suitable for preschool learners as, in fact,

everyone perceives 85% of the world visually.


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It is well-known that in recent years we have witnessed young children

watching various cartoons, videos etc. on their mobile phones. It is praiseworthy

that some children of Uzbek families are learning another language, for example

Russian, through videos and audio materials.

In preschools, visual learners are usually very diligent and attentive, they try

to absorb any information they receive in the classroom very well. As it was

mentioned above, 85% of people have a high level of visual perception and

children with this psychotype can learn any rules or poems very easily if they are

presented them in the form of diagrams, pictures and illustrations. The

demonstration of various cartoons and the creation of different posters, diagrams,

collages and other visual aids for the lessons will significantly facilitate children's

mastery, comprehension and learning.

Among preschoolers, the number of visual learners is more dominant than

others. These learners differ from others in the following ways:

1. Children of this category always use verbs that mean “see” when they talk about

something.

2. Visual learners are very hardworking; therefore, it is difficult to distract them

and force to switch to something else. They can spend hours on the activities they

like.

3. When communicating with visual learners, one can notice that they always look

directly at the face of a person or up. Also, even if such children sit in an unnatural

position during the lessons, it does not mean that they sitwithout listening to the

instructor; on the contrary, it means that such learners have intensive mental work

at that time.

4. Visuallearners often prefer silence becausepeaceful atmosphere createsa comfort

zone for them and their work.

5. If visual learnerscannot see, they also stop hearing. They prefer to observe the

things from a distance to get the full information about something, and the longer


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the distance, the better for the learners. Such learners do not try to keep themselves

away from theirteachers, but they try to figure everything out as well as possible.

6. Visual learners find it very difficult to get information from theirmobile phones.

Such children prefer face-to-face communication over technical devices and

gadgets.

7. Often, such children pay great attention to their appearance and the way of

clothing. [12]

CONCLUSION

On the basis of research and observations of psychologists, we can surely

say that visualization plays a significant role in the demonstrationof the mental

abilities of preschool learners because with the help of a number of visual

technologies we can provide them with the systematic transfer of knowledge, form

their perceptions of existence and being, and also develop their active learning.

REFERENCES:

[1]. Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. The Doctrine of the Virtuous City. T .: National

Heritage Publishing House named after A. Qodiri. 1993. p 224

[2]. D.R.Boboeva.Teverak-atrofni urganisda maktabgacha kata yoshdagi

bolalarning boglanishli nutqini rivojlantirish (Developing connected speech of

older preschool children in the process of learning environmental studies).

Dissertation abstract. T.: 2001. p 131

[3]. A.A.Verbitsky. Aktivnoye obucheniye v visshey shkole: kontekstniy

podkhod (Active learning in higher education: contextual approach). M.:

Higher school. 1991. p 207

[4]. L.S.Vygotsky. The Collected Works in Six Volumes. T.2. Problemi obshey

psikhologii (The problems of general psychology). Edited by V.V. Davidov. –

M.: Pedagogy, 1982. p 502

[5]. B. Ziyomukhammedov. Pedagogy: Manual for Higher Education Students.

T.: “Turon-Ikbol”. 2006. p 112


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[6]. Jan Amos Comenius. Uchiteluchiteley (The Master of Teachers).

(Abbreviated works “Materinskayashkola” (“Mother’s school” and

“Velikayadidaktika” (“The great didactics”)). M.: Karapuz, 2009. p 288

[7]. A.P. Malkina. Vizualizatsiya kak sposob ponimaniya inoyazichnogo teksta

po spesialnosti v obuchenii inostrannomu yaziku (Visualization as a way of

understanding a foreign text based on a specialty in teaching a foreign

language) (non-linguistic institution) // 2

nd

edition (58). p 239-245

[8]. Pedagogicheskaya diagnostika kak instrument poznaniya i ponimaniya

rebyonka doshkolnogo vozrasta (Pedagogical diagnostics as a tool for cognition

and understanding of a preschool child): a scientific-methodical manual for HE

students / Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen. –

Special library. 2008. p 136-141

[9]. N.N.Poddyakov. Problemi razvitiya mislitelnoy deyatelnosti u detey

doshkolnogo vozrasta (Problems of the development of preschool children’s

mental activity) // Razvitiye mishleniya i umstvennoye vospitaniye

doshkolnika(Development of thinking and mental learning of a preschooler) /

Edited by N.N. Poddyakov, A.F. Govorkova. - M.: 1985

[10].T.T.Sidelnikova. Potensial i ogranicheniye vizualizatsii kak metoda

izucheniya

sotsialno-gumanitarnikh

distsiplin

(Potential

and

limited

visualization as a method used for learning social-humanitarian disciplines) //

Integration of education. 2016. T.20. № 2. p 281-292

[11].https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki

[12].http://psihomed.com/vizual/

Библиографические ссылки

Abu Nasr Al-Farabi. The Doctrine of the Virtuous City. T .: National Heritage Publishing House named after A. Qodiri. 1993. p 224

D.R.Boboeva.Teverak-atrofni urganisda maktabgacha kata yoshdagi bolalarning boglanishli nutqini rivojlantirish (Developing connected speech of older preschool children in the process of learning environmental studies). Dissertation abstract. T.: 2001. p 131

A.A.Verbitsky. Aktivnoye obucheniye v visshey shkole: kontekstniy podkhod (Active learning in higher education: contextual approach). M.: Higher school. 1991. p 207

L.S.Vygotsky. The Collected Works in Six Volumes. T.2. Problemi obshey psikhologii (The problems of general psychology). Edited by V.V. Davidov. – M.: Pedagogy, 1982. p 502

B. Ziyomukhammedov. Pedagogy: Manual for Higher Education Students. T.: “Turon-Ikbol”. 2006. p 112

Jan Amos Comenius. Uchiteluchiteley (The Master of Teachers). (Abbreviated works “Materinskayashkola” (“Mother’s school” and “Velikayadidaktika” (“The great didactics”)). M.: Karapuz, 2009. p 288

A.P. Malkina. Vizualizatsiya kak sposob ponimaniya inoyazichnogo teksta po spesialnosti v obuchenii inostrannomu yaziku (Visualization as a way of understanding a foreign text based on a specialty in teaching a foreign language) (non-linguistic institution) // 2 nd edition (58). p 239-245

Pedagogicheskaya diagnostika kak instrument poznaniya i ponimaniya rebyonka doshkolnogo vozrasta (Pedagogical diagnostics as a tool for cognition and understanding of a preschool child): a scientific-methodical manual for HE students / Russian State Pedagogical University named after A.I. Herzen. – Special library. 2008. p 136-141

N.N.Poddyakov. Problemi razvitiya mislitelnoy deyatelnosti u detey doshkolnogo vozrasta (Problems of the development of preschool children’s mental activity) // Razvitiye mishleniya i umstvennoye vospitaniye doshkolnika(Development of thinking and mental learning of a preschooler) / Edited by N.N. Poddyakov, A.F. Govorkova. - M.: 1985

T.T.Sidelnikova. Potensial i ogranicheniye vizualizatsii kak metoda izucheniya sotsialno-gumanitarnikh distsiplin (Potential and limited visualization as a method used for learning social-humanitarian disciplines) // Integration of education. 2016. T.20. № 2. p 281-292

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki

http://psihomed.com/vizual/

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