Ethnosociological factors of social transformation in modern Uzbekistan

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Содиржонов, М. (2020). Ethnosociological factors of social transformation in modern Uzbekistan. in Library, 20(4), 27–34. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/22301
Мухриддин Содиржонов, Наманганский государственный университет

Ijtimoiy fanlar kafedrasi dotsenti, sotsiologiya fanlari bo'yicha falsafa doktori(PhD)

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Аннотация

The article discusses the economic and political changes in Uzbek society and the radical changes in people's daily lives. In addition, the article modern social transformation of ethno factors , etnosotsional processes described in the subjectivity of ethnic groups fail. Ethnic social processes in the region are discussed in terms of ethnic unity and harmony, ethnic conflicts, ethnic migration, and the importance of ethnic economics . 


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UDK 36

Sodirjonov M.M.

Researcher

Namangan State University

ETHNOSOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION

IN MODERN UZBEKISTAN

Annotation:

The article

discusses the

economic

and

political

changes in Uzbek society and the radical changes in people's daily lives . In

addition, the article modern social transformation of ethno factors , etnosotsional

processes described in the subjectivity of ethnic groups fail. Ethnic social

processes in the region are discussed in terms of ethnic unity and harmony, ethnic

conflicts, ethnic migration, and the importance of ethnic economics .

Keywords: globalization, internet, ethnicity, mentality, ethnosocial process,

media, virtual space, digital economy, modernization.

The twenty-first century, the country s role in the economic life of the

people, and the world community in connection with the development of

information technologies. It is known that in the period of rapid development of

science and technology, the sharp increase in the volume of scientific knowledge,

understanding and imagination is becoming a significant part of everyday

life. This, on the one hand, scientific and technological development of new

industries because of its differentsiallashuvini providing, on the other hand, the

science in the process of integration creates.

The XXI century marks new milestones in the study of the history and

national values of the Uzbek people. Today, unknown stages and aspects of our

history are being rediscovered. In recent years, a number of significant studies on

the ancient statehood traditions, ethnic history and ethnogenesis of the Uzbek


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people have been created [ 3 ]. However, so far no sociological research has been

conducted on the mentality of the Uzbek people, its peculiarities, succession and

intergenerational conflict [4].

It is known from history that the mentality of each nation in the world,

including Uzbeks, is formed within the specific historical, ethnic, natural and

climatic conditions, so its attitude to socio-political events and historical processes

in society is different. . After all, national identities are determined on the basis of

socio-economic, political processes, natural geographical location, mutual

ethnocultural relations, religious affiliation over a long historical period.

The main goal of the development of any society will be to improve the

living standards of the population. The state pursues a strong social policy to

ensure social stability, economic development, peace , and a healthy and

prosperous life. Considering this, the further development of the Republic of

Uzbekistan " H " action strategy in the early stages of life of the

population f arovonligi and quality of life of the great creative work is carried

out. Today, more than 60% of the state budget is directed to the development of

the social sphere.

Consequently, the domestic production of the rational core of the national

policy reforms "Many nationality - Uzbekistan's wealth" the main idea. Particular

attention is paid to the fifth priority of the Action Strategy for the further

development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2017-2021 - ensuring security,

interethnic harmony and religious tolerance, as well as the implementation of

well-thought-out, mutually beneficial and practical foreign policy [ 1. 27]. The

country has created ample opportunities for the active participation of citizens of

different nationalities in socio-economic, political, legal, spiritual and educational

life, their understanding of national identity and the preservation of ethnic values.

Etnosotsional processes - this is a type of social processes , to describe the

subjectivity of the ethnic groups is an important factor hissoblanadi. Ethnic social


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processes in the region include ethnic unity and harmony, ethnic conflicts, ethnic

migration, ethnic economics, and ethnic crime.

In fact, if the ethnic group is not available as a single event, but a cultural

and political nature of the "elements" allocating SA, which is under pressure from

the Soviet Union was very aggressive and their growth during the current group of

ethnic crackdown. However, the filling of this process did not happen. This ethnic

factor in the Soviet T z mining and the stability of its political and economic

evidence of the influence of the components. The USSR decay is one of the

reasons is that during the years of the Soviet Union and its powerful ethnic

territory, only limited additional cultural ya Madi. In short, the culture of the

peoples of the Soviet Union persecuted religious traditions, of course, have

successfully developed.

Let us take another example as a clear case of possible ethnic conflict. The

objection that these “some elites” are provoking a conflict or that the group is

based on economic claims does not absolve it from criticism (the events in

Fergana confirm this ) . These peoples have historically the same origin, and today

there is no significant difference between Turkish and Uzbek cultures . For

example, the Ferghana village have the main part of the Muslim population that

has become important to their identity.

In other words, the idea of a clear, comfortable, and superior union leads to

separation, and we have witnessed separatism in the process of building

Europe. Moreover, not only in Central or Eastern Europe , where the direction of

such events was conveniently explained by the mistakes of national policy in

communist execution, but also in a stable, highly prosperous Western society

concerned with the rights of national minorities.

Specific manifestations of the ethnic factor include macro, and meso-level

factors. Key factors at the macro level include society and the state. Along with

the general ethnosociological features of society (ethnodemographic composition

of the population, the ratio of national majority and minority, the intensity of


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ethnic migration, the presence or absence of ethnic stratification in the minds of

citizens, etc.), there are specific features of a particular society and state.

The population of all countries in the world is divided into 2 groups

according to their national composition. The first is monoethnic (population is

mainly composed of one ethnic group) and the second is polyethnic

(multinational) states.

Uzbekistan has its own characteristics, which are expressed as follows. The

country has never been mono e non-ethnic state, historically the modern world, the

most common model is rejected. Today, globalization is leading to the decline of

mono-ethnic states. According to experts, a state is a monoethnic state if 5 percent

of its population is made up of other non-titular nationalities. At a time when

migration processes are on the rise, mono-ethnic states are almost non-

existent. (Ethnic Uzbeks) of the nation, not the formation of a one-third of the

racial-ethnic backgrounds, but in a neighboring ethnic groups ( q foodstuffs,

Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Turkmens, etc.) in a long time as a result of "interference" . The

former I ttifoq period on the basis of national policy (in the government, on the

one hand, benefits, on the other hand, restrictions and ethnic discrimination), but

lay religious views. In other words, it was "useful" to be Russian-speaking, not

Uzbek-speaking.

Title peoples - in all historical periods, Uzbeks were much higher than other

ethnic groups, so they represented the national majority not only legally, but also

quantitatively. At the same time, for example, during the heyday of the British

Empire, the British were only a few percent comparable to the colonial peoples .

Today, the phenomenon of " cultural influence " is not always accompanied

by a certain amount of violence, but we can not deny that the Uzbek language

and Uzbek culture in general has always served as a strong unifying principle for

all peoples living in different periods of the Uzbek state.

The national policy of the Soviet state was full of internal contradictions,

which eventually led to the collapse of the union. The role of the ethnic factor in


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this process was not clearly considered. The main contradiction was, of course, the

attempt to combine the two incompatible trends. On the one hand, the formation of

a single national-ethnic nation - the Soviet people as equal citizens, on the other

hand, to put the principle of ethnicization in the construction of a union

state. Obviously, the filling of these two ideological opposite to each

other. This significant estimates " unreliable " mass deportation nations, victims of

the German occupation of the post-war repression and more events need to enter

them.

During the Soviet period, the institutionalization of the ethnic group began

with the national-territorial structure of the Soviet state and the formation of

ethno-national elites who later took an active part in the disintegration of the

Union. An ethnos in the form of “ blood-kinship ” to a particular ethnic

group began to perform an unusual regulatory function, and the ethnic group was

essentially transformed into a reference group for all its members.

Today, ethnic group, the secret institutsionalizatsiya be observed in a

number of national entities, inter-ethnic relations broke ng li shi and can lead to

ethnic tensions. The ethno-social stratification inherent in Uzbek society is not

typical of the postmodern period. It exists only in a symbolic reality, and the work

of directly influencing interethnic relations is exactly the same. Based on the

ethnic origin of a complex system of ethnic status (national titles belonging to the

majority or minority, or titles), as well as being a member of the group , place of

residence ( " their " national association or " stranger " ) expands the social

distance between representatives of different nationalities, ethnic conflicts leads to

Economic and political changes in Uzbek society are characterized by the

phenomenon of "cultural delay", which is much more important than the radical

changes in people's daily lives and psychological preparation.

The main factor at the intermediate level is educational and upbringing

institutions

that

provide humanitarian

(spiritual) education to

the younger

generation , in particular, ethno-cultural education, which contributes to


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the formation of ethnic identity and patriotism, national identity. Socialization is

carried out by the subjects of education within the framework of the general

ideology of this society, especially its national idea.

For filling the most important part of this process is a positive ethnic

identity and the representatives of the people in the country, with the formation of

the Uzbek nation in the future not only in law (Civil), but also the development of

the spiritual (psychological level) offers a national identity for all of creation is

explained .

I

must

admit

that,

having

a

different

ethnic

origin Study of

Karakalpakstan US citizens of ethnic tolerance and mutual aimed at creating a

positive

relationship

between

this

humanitarian

mission. According to the researchers , ethnic superstition, extremism, and a

tendency to dominate other ethnic groups in young people who have gone through

the stage of secondary socialization in the new conditions are far from

over [ 6 ] . As a result, the Soviet practice of internatsionalizmi not only

ideological shortcomings, including the BBC RGA generous qualities that allow

the formation of a few generations of people is not enough. The one exception to

this - by the state policy of open and covert anti-Semitism grown syndrome.

The main factor at the micro level is the family, which is a key element of

the primary social relations. The " entry " of the child into the ethnic culture of his

people takes place in the family . This part of the community of children at the

primary skills of social relations, including ethnic relationships of family, ethnic

and cultural system of norms, manners, customs, and most importantly, groups

and personal conflicts arising from negative ethnic stereotypes are

formed. Research shows that the family, as an ethnic “ socializer, ” dominates the

influence of educational institutions on consciousness. If the family and the

school spread different systems of values and stereotypes, the family wins in this

competition, because the upbringing in the family is continuous and is carried out

not only consciously but also unconsciously [ 7 ] .


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Thus, for example, the process of family sotsializatsiya safeguard the ethnic

intolerance, stereotypes, attitudes and social behavior, often at the level of the

school

s teaching hitting

the

positive

ethnic

relations

in

moderation. Complementing the above factors as the media and the arts

(especially literature), they also need to talk about the ethnic culture and ethnic

system of norms, customs, manners and understanding of the formation of

stereotypes , " take part " . B during an assessment of the representatives of ethnic

groups and their effects are always " been " recognized by the dominant.

A specific factor determining the direction of ethnic relations at the

interpersonal level is the personal experience of social processes . This experience

not only be positive or negative , but it now exists. In addition, personal

experience of interaction (acquaintance with representatives of a particular ethnic

group) often reduces the impact of the system of social stereotypes formed in the

process of socialization, while the absence of such cases reinforces stereotypes

about accepting and evaluating an ethnically “other” person.

In the context of multi-ethnicity, the establishment of interethnic relations

requires taking into account the uniqueness, diversity of interests and needs of

each nation. "Today, more than 130 nationalities and ethnic groups live in our

country as children of one family" [ 2 ]. This is due to the national responsibility

of people of different nationalities living in the country, as well as the activities of

governmental

and

non-governmental

organizations

on

ethnocultural

policy. "13 8 national cultural centers play a leading role in the development of

ethnic identity and further harmonization of interethnic relations in our country ."

Taking into account such aspects as the unique cultural traditions and values

of different nations and peoples allows for the sustainable and consistent

development of interethnic relations in the system of national interests. "Because

social development in polyethnic societies shows signs of diversity" [ 3. 15].

In conclusion, it should be noted that, according to their nature, nson social

approaches with respect to the environment and society as an important


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component to consider that this principle social ts entrizm between principles and

antroposentrizm

antroposotsiosentrizmni

will

be

grounds

for

promotion. Social ts entrizm the West for a long time the principle of social and

political systems, and social development of the socialist systems that are used in

the power of the masses of the people.

The principle of anthroposociocentrism, based on the cooperation of society

in the human, cultural, economic, political and legal spheres, presupposes the

definition of material and spiritual values, along with other macrocosmic

values. When attention is paid to the material and practical life of each individual,

personal security is important for individual members of society, and it must be

endorsed by others and more important to one another.

References:

1.

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the Action Strategy

for further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. -T .: Adolat, 2017. - B. 27.

2.

Mirziyoev.Sh.M. We will resolutely continue our path of national

development and raise it to a new level. - T .: Uzbekistan, pages 296, 297, 298.

3.

Askarov A.A. Some theoretical and scientific-methodological bases of

ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Uzbek people // History of Uzbekistan,

2002. № 4. Pages 54-60

4.

Bekmurodov MB, Begmatov A. National mentality and leadership

spirituality. - T., 2003; Bekmurodov M.B. Features of the Uzbek mentality //

Social opinion. 1998 № 1. Pages 49-53

5.

Musayev O . R . Socio - philosophical features

of

the development

of interethnic relations

in Uzbekistan . Author's

abstract

of

the

doctoral

dissertation (DSc). - T .: 2017. p.15

6.

Bell D. Ethnicity and Social Change // Ethnicity. Theory and Experience. NY,

1989.

7.

Triandis G.K. Culture and social behavior. M .: Forum, 2007.

Библиографические ссылки

Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the Action Strategy for further development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. -T .: Adolat, 2017. - B. 27.

Mirziyoev.Sh.M. We will resolutely continue our path of national development and raise it to a new level. - T .: Uzbekistan, pages 296, 297, 298.

Askarov A.A. Some theoretical and scientific-methodological bases of ethnogenesis and ethnic history of the Uzbek people // History of Uzbekistan, 2002. № 4. Pages 54-60

Bekmurodov MB, Begmatov A. National mentality and leadership spirituality. - T., 2003; Bekmurodov M.B. Features of the Uzbek mentality // Social opinion. 1998 № 1. Pages 49-53

Musayev O. R. Socio - philosophical features of the development of interethnic relations in Uzbekistan . Author's abstract of the doctoral dissertation (DSc). - T .: 2017. p.15

Bell D. Ethnicity and Social Change // Ethnicity. Theory and Experience. NY, 1989.

Triandis G.K. Culture and social behavior. M .: Forum, 2007.

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