Открытия, сделанные на животных при тестировании методов лечения и новых лекарств

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Мирсобитова, М., & Давлетярова, Н. (2021). Открытия, сделанные на животных при тестировании методов лечения и новых лекарств. in Library, 21(2), 431–432. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/20670
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Аннотация

Согласно исследованию, проведенному Всемирной организацией здравоохранения, миллионы животных используются для научных и коммерческих испытаний. Исследования живых животных были начаты еще в глубокой древности. Описания вскрытия живых животных встречаются в древнегреческих писаниях примерно 500 г. до н.э. Ученые-врачи, такие как Аристотель, Герофил и Эразистрат, проводили эксперименты, чтобы обнаружить функции живых организмов. Кроме того, некоторые эксперименты, проводимые сегодня на животных, требуются по закону.

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intended for disciplines that include practice. Taking everything into account, web based
learning ought to be viewed as a supplement and augmentation of old style types of learning. Not
even all that online course can completely supplant the individual contact with an instructor, or
the human connections that create in a gathering. In this way, conventional classes should not be
supplanted with web-based learning.

THE DISCOVERIES THAT HELD ON ANIMALS IN TESTING MEDICAL

TREATMENTS AND NEW DRUGS

Mirsobitova M.M., 120 group, 1

st

Pediatric faculty

Scientific advisor: Davletyarova N.I.

TashPMI, Foreign languages department

Introduction.

According to the research that was conducted by the World Health

Organization, millions of animals are used for scientific and commercial testing. Research on
living animals has been started in ancient times. Descriptions of the dissection of live animals
have been found in ancient Greek writings from as early as circa 500 BC. Physician-scientists
such as Aristotle, Herophilus, and Erasistratus performed the experiments to discover the
functions of living organisms. Furthermore, some of the experimentation conducted on animals
today is required by law.

Purpose of work.

Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine the toxicity

of medications, check the safety of products destined for human use, and other biomedical,
commercial, and health care uses. Besides testing on animals also serves to protect consumers,
workers and the environment from the harmful effects of chemicals. All chemicals for
commercial or personal use must be tested so that their effect on the people and animals exposed
to them is understood. The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of
the ethics of using animals in scientific medical experiments. Various positions from scientific
and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals will be presented in this
work

Material and methods.

By analyzing animal models, scientists can learn what causes

disease as well as how it develops and what aspects of genetics, the environment or diet
contribute to the development of the disease. For this research, many different types of animals
are used like mice, rabbit, guinea pig, sheep, monkeys, primates and dogs. While there are
differences, we know that the main biological div systems work in the same way in all
mammals. The reproductive, endocrine and cardiovascular and the central nervous systems all
have a very similar structure and function. It worth’s to mention that mice are a common animal
model in animal testing procedures. The main reason for this is mice share over 90% of their
genes with humans. During the animal experimentation, the animals are often put into restraining
tubes or other types of restraints so they have no way of escaping the pain. They generally
perform Vivisection (cutting up of a living animal) animals are dissected, infected with diseases.
For practically every known human disease, researchers attempt to induce similar aspects of the
disease in animals to create an animal "model" of that disease. Supposedly predictive, animals
are used to discover and quantify the impact of a treatment, whether this is to cure a disease or to
assess the toxicity of a chemical compound." This is how animals are "used in the context of


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drug testing and studying human disease. Areas of disease research involving animals include
neurological, infectious, digestive, genetic, connective tissue, and chronic diseases. In these
areas, animals are used as models of traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries, congenital
blindness, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, AIDS, diabetes, cancer, obesity, and so on.

Results.

The results that based on facts have shown that animal experimentation is

typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animal, especially mice provide
sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that,
consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. According to research results that
were conducted by Michigan University Professors, the success rate of using mice in medical
treatments and anti-cancer vaccines accumulated for 92 and 90 percentages, respectively. Only
in almost 10 percent cases, the test results faced to failure.

Findings.

As a result of the discoveries conducted by scientists and doctors on different

kinds of mammals, humanity was able to increase the safety of new remedies and medical
treatments. It worth mentioning that, despite the failure rate made up almost 10 percentage, we
were able to save and even cure 90 percent of people.

THE USE OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE (TPR) AT PRIMARY

SCHOOL

Mirxoshimova H., 210 – group of medical pedagogical faculty

Scientific adviser: Talipova Sh.Sh.

TashPMI, English department


Actuality:

Differing from other subjects, English is fun as there are variety of ways to

learn it. Each method has its own aim and situation or advantage which can be used effectively.
Among them Total Physical Response (TPR) is mostly used in primary schools, especially, to
teach children vocabulary. In this article the information will be given about the history of TPR,
its usage in the primary school classes, the ways of using them in the classes and why is it
popular and most useful to use this method. It would also be valuable to examine the advantages
and disadvantages of the method with examples of the games in usage.

Aim:

Each person assimilates information in different ways. Someone direct method,

someone conversational, etc. Each teacher must conduct the lesson in an interactive way, i.e.
should interfere with all methods and teach the situation in the language being learnt in an
interactive and interesting way.

Main part:

They have more ability in learning anything when it is enjoyable so activities

and games, which involve physical movements, are more frequent in the syllabus of primary
school language subjects. In the context of teaching, most people assume that children learn a
foreign language in the same way that they learn their mother tongue. Basically, children are
potential in acquiring and learning a foreign language, and even they learn it more quickly than
those who are learning the foreign language after puberty. Thus, children understand the context
more quickly than the language itself. This shows that the method is truly appropriate for
children. Also, TPR highly improves listening skills. Repeating the same word over and over
again make children acquire the language faster. In this case I should mention that with TPR
introvert students will not be overlooked. The fact that all pupils in the class participate actively
in the activities ensures they all learn the topic. TPR is used in every classroom with learners at

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