Создание английских корпусов: исторический обзор

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Тешабаева, Д., & Парпиева, Ш. (2024). Создание английских корпусов: исторический обзор. in Library, 1(2), 78–82. извлечено от https://inlibrary.uz/index.php/archive/article/view/28396
Дилфуза Тешабаева, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков
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Шакхноза Парпиева, Узбекский государственный университет мировых языков
Преподаватель в Узбекском государственном университете мировых языков
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Аннотация

The emergence of corpus linguistics was preceded by a centuries old period of the use corpus methods and the creation of text corpora. In connection with the non-electronic form of storage of these corpora, as well as non-automatic methods of data processing, a special period in the history of corpus linguistics called pre electronic can be distinguished. With the invention and widespread use of computers, a new stage of development corpus linguistics begins – the created corpora differ from the old ones not only in the storage format, but also in volume. Second generation corpora are the products of the Internet and are distinguished by their large size. The third generation corpora are large and have many technological advantages. In this period, a number of new corpora were created, with a total volume of several billion words.

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78

ENGLISH CORPORA MAKING: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW

Teshabaeva Dilfuza Muminovna

1

, Parpieva Shakhnoza Muratovna

2

1

DSc, Professor at Uzbekistan State World Languages University

2

Teacher at Uzbekistan State World Languages University

ABSTRACT

The emergence of corpus linguistics was preceded by a centuries old period of the use corpus methods and the creation of text
corpora. In connection with the non-electronic form of storage of these corpora, as well as non-automatic methods of data
processing, a special period in the history of corpus linguistics called pre-electronic can be distinguished. With the invention
and widespread use of computers, a new stage of development corpus linguistics begins – the created corpora differ from the
old ones not only in the storage format, but also in volume. Second-generation corpora are the products of the Internet and are
distinguished by their large size. The third generation corpora are large and have many technological advantages.

In this

period, a number of new corpora were created, with a total volume of several billion words.

KEY WORDS:

corpus, concordance, pre-electronic era, computer, generation, modern, megacorpus.

Swedish writer and linguist J.Svartvik declares that in

the history of corpora making there was the first so-called
“Stone Age” or pre-computer period, when corpora were
created by hand on paper

1

. These first paper corpora were

essentially concordances, that is, alphabetical lists of words in
their contextual surroundings. The creation of such paper
corpus concordances was time-consuming and required
strenuous analysis, which was done by hand. Paper corpora
played a significant role in linguistic projects such as the
concordance of the Bible and literary works as well as the
writing of grammars and dictionaries.

The first concordance was compiled in the thirteenth

century by Friar Anthony of Padua for the fifth-century Latin
version of the “Vulgate” Bible. This concordance was called
“Concordantiae Morales”.

The first important work among English-language

concordances was “A Concordance to Shakespeare: Suited to
All the Editions” by A. Beckett (1787) and is an important
work in the development of corpus linguistics. It contains,
information about the place of use of a particular word (play,
act and action) and passage of a work in which a certain word
is used

2

.

The tradition of composing concordances by hand for

fiction works was preserved until 1995 and was implemented
in the following works: “The Concordance to Conrad's The
Secret Agent by Conrad” (Bender, 1979), “A Concordance to
Henry James's Daisy Miller by Henry James” (Bender, 1987),

1

Svartvik, J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years on / J.Svartvik. –

Amsterdam, NY 2007. – P. 11-27

2

Beckett, A. A Concordance to Shakespeare: Suited to all the

Editions. Printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, 1787. 167-183 p.

the “A Concordance to the Complete Poems and Plays by T.
S. Elliot” (Dawson, 1995)

3

.

In addition to concordances, large samples of texts

were also used to create early grammar books.

Early grammar

of the English language was also based on the classical
tradition to use quotes from real texts, for instance, “A Short
Introduction to English Gramma” by Robert Lowes (1762).
One of the most famous grammars of this period was the
seven-volume work of Jespersen (1909-1949), “A Modern
English Grammar on Historical Principles” and was also built
exclusively on examples selected from a huge number of texts.
Otto Jespersen belonged to that type of linguists who were
convinced, that the linguistic description should be based not
on fictional, but on real examples from real speech texts. The
tendency to cite literary works as examples with grammatical
rules continued in grammars of the late 19th and mid-20th
centuries by such authors as J. Ruhl, H. Poutsma, and Ch.
Fries. However, not all grammarians followed this tradition.

Studies of large texts have also been carried out with

a view to dictionaries. Starting with Samuel Johnson's
Dictionary (1755), lexicographers used quotations from texts
by famous writers to illustrate the meanings and usage of
words. The lexicographer collected 150,000 illustrative
quotations for the 40000 words dictionary. The Oxford
English Dictionary (OED), which was created under the
direction of James Murray (1880), was based on a corpus of
five million card quotes

4

.

3

Tribble C. What are concordances and how are they used //

The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics / ed. by A.
O'Keeffe, M. McCarthy. 2010. P. 167–183.

4

O'Keeffe, A. & McCarthy, M.'Historical perspective: What

are corpora and how have they evolved?'. The Routledge


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79

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, several

projects were organized to collect empirical material for
lexicographic purposes. On their basis, the dictionary of the
American version of the English edited by Noah Webster
(Noah Webster's an American English Dictionary) (1828) and
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) (1884) were compiled.
To create the research base of the Oxford Dictionary, two
thousand volunteer readers collected about five million
citations totaling approximately 50 million word uses in order
to illustrate the meanings and usage of 414,825 words in the
dictionary. Based on the collected texts of English dialect
speech, J.Wright compiled a dictionary of English dialects
“The English Dialect Dictionary” (1898-1905).

The most important pre-electronic corpus is

considered to be The Survey of English Usage, created by
Randolph Quirk in 1959. The corpus was a large database on
cardboard cards containing samples of speech (both written
and spoken) of ordinary citizens. This project was a
transitional stage in the development of corpus linguistics.

R.

Quirk called the collected research material “source material”
or “texts”. This corpus proved to be the most well-structured
and systematic corpus of the pre-electronic era. The spoken
and written forms of speech were represented by texts of
different

genres,

with

both

formal

and

informal

communication as sources. The corpus consisted of 200 text
fragments, each with a volume of 5,000 word uses. This
corpus marked the transition from the pre-electronic to the
electronic era.

THE FIRST GENERATION CORPORA

The idea of creating a corpus (already in the modern

sense of the word) emerged in the 1960s, heavily influenced
by empirical research. By the end of the 1960s, there were
several small corpora created on different principles. It was
advances in computer technology, rather than in linguistics,
that gave rise to the first electronic corpora. J. Svartvik claims
that in 1960 the term “corpus” was hardly ever used and there
was a long debate about the plural form of the word “corpus”
(corpuses, corpora or even corpi) at the conference

5

.

Computers were just coming into general use in the

mid-twentieth century. They were the first primitive machines
which were difficult to work with, but their huge potential was
immediately recognised and attracted to linguistic research.
The computerisation of texts started with Father Busa's Index
Thomisticus before 1950 (completed in 1978). The first
linguistic corpora of machine-readable texts appeared in the
1960s. They were very small by modern standards, but were
characterised by an elaborate organisation.

THE BROWN CORPUS

In the early 1960s, two projects emerged in Scotland

and in the USA in order to create corpora in electronic format.
The University of Edinburgh in Scotland was creating a
spoken corpus that included transcribed versions of everyday

Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. London: Routledge, 2010. 3-
13 p.

5

Svartvik J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years // Corpus Linguistics

25 Years On / ed. by R. Faccinetti, 2007. 11–27 p.

conversations of British English speakers. This corpus is small
in size at 300,000 words.The reason was the time-consuming
process of collecting and transcribing spoken language and the
absence of a computer at the university.

At the same time at Brown University (USA), Henry

Kucera and W. Nelson Francis started creation of a one-
million-word corpus, which was named the Brown Corpus.
The purpose of the corpus was to investigate the linguistic
features of the American English. It contained 500 text
passages of 2,000 words each, for a total of about 1 million
words. The texts were selected from the fifteen largest genres:
newspaper articles (reports, editorials), religious literature,
professional literature, popular science literature, fiction,
samples of business prose (including government documents),
scientific literature, prose fiction, detectives and science
fiction, adventure and westerns, romance, humorous stories
and novels.
The compilers took into account such characteristics as:
1. The origin and composition of the text (the author had to be
a native speaker of American English);
2. Time period (all the texts selected for the corpus were first
published in 1961);
3. Balanced representation of different genres;
4. Accessibility to computer processing (special markings to
convey graphic features of the text).

The emergence of the Brown corpus sparked interest

in the academic community. The corpus quickly became a
popular object of linguistic research. Gradually, in the process
of its use, scholars came to the realisation that it was possible
to make certain comparisons and identify specific patterns
only by analysing significant size arrays of texts according to
certain rules.

Thus, new studies of language began to be carried out

at a higher and more reliable level within the framework of a
new trend in linguistics, which is corpus linguistics.

The Brown Corpus has become the standard for

corpus compilation, both in terms of volume and the range of
writing styles and genres represented in it. With the
publication of the Brown Corpus, similar corpora began to
appear, first in the UK and then in other countries. For
example, in 1976, The Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen corpus (LOB)
(1961-1978) was published

6

. In the early 1990s, similar

corpora with a volume of at least one million words,
consisting of 500 texts of fifteen different genres of writing,
began to be created. At the same time, each text had to contain
at least 2,000 words. These include, for example, The
Australian Corpus of English, ACE (1986), The Wellington
Written English, WWE (1986), The Freiburg-Brown Corpus
of American English, (1991-1992), The Freiburg London-Oslo
/ Bergen corpus, F-LOB, (1991-1992), The Kolhapur Corpus
Indian English (1978)

7

. These corpora were collectively called

6

The LOB Corpus. URL:

http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/CoRD/corpora/LOB/index.html

7

Baker P., Hardie A., McEnery T. Glossary of Corpus

Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press, 2006. 192 p.


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80

the Brown family of corpora

8

. The only difference between

these corpora was that the corpora contained texts of one of
the variants of written English: American, British, Australian,
New Zealand and Indian.


The Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen Corpus

The Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen Corpus created on the

Brown Corpus model following the same principles: 15 genres
(registers), 500 texts of 2000 words (word uses). It included 1
million words of British English and was called The
Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen Corpus (from the names of the British
and two Norwegian universities, or LOB for short). Balanced
corpora such as created on Brown corpus model are very
important for researchers whose interests lie in the field of
linguistics and who wish to use the corpus for purposes of
linguistic description and analysis.


The London-Lund Corpus

In 1975 the London-Lund Corpus (LLC) - a corpus

of spoken English was completed. The project was a
collaboration, funded by IBM, between the Unit for Computer
Research on the English Language (UCREL) at the University
of Lancaster and the IBM Scientific Centre in Winchester. It
contained about 500,000 words with spelling, phonetic and
prosodic transcriptions. This huge work was first done on
paper by staff at University College London and then
transferred to computer form by linguists from the Swedish
city of Lund. The LLC corpus consists of 100 transcribed texts
of spoken monological and dialogical speech of 5000 words
each. Dialogical speech is recorded in texts of conversational
style between friends and colleagues, in talks and telephone
conversations. Monological speech is represented by
spontaneous (comments and stories) as well as prepared
speech.


The Second Generation Corpora

Second-generation corpora are products of the

Internet and are characterised by significant volume. For
example, in the late 1980s the first mega-corpus was created
in the UK, setting a new standard for corpus - the British
National Corpus. This corpus is characterised by a volume of
100 million words, with the availability of mark-up and access
via the Internet.

The corpus is distinguished by the use of full

texts moreover, including a wide variety of texts by genre,
style and subject (newspaper articles, magazine texts, letters,
school essays and etc.).


The Bank of English

Many European language corpora have been created

according to the standards set by the British National Corpus.
The Bank of English project began to develop in the 1980s. In
1989 it had 20 million words and in 2012 it had 650 million
words.

The distinctive feature of this corpus is a

comprehensive reflection of modern English, it covers the

8

Xiao R. Well-known and influential corpora // Corpus

Linguistics: An International Handbook / ed. by A. Ludeling,
M. Kyto. 2008. 383–457 p.

English language in general, in proportion to all its variants.
The Bank of English is an integral part of one of the largest
language databases - Collins Corpus, which is used to create
modern dictionaries. This corpus contains over 650 million
words, 65-70% of which correspond to the British English,
25-30% – to the American English. The corpus consists of
various types of written texts and spoken language. The
corpus includes metatext markup, as well as partial markup.
The Bank of the English presents a unique in its kind monitor
corpus of the English language. Regular updating the corpus
with new texts gives the ability to track all changes of English
lexical systems, such as the emergence of new words,
changing the value of existing lexemes, frequency of use and
grammatical structures in speech. Access to the full hull
version is chargeable. A free trial is available a one-month
subscription to Collins Wordbanks Online for access (550
million words).

THE COLLINS BIRMINGHAM UNIVERSITY
INTERNATIONAL LANGUAGE DATABASE

Then

the

Collins

Birmingham

University

International Language Database (hereafter-COBUILD) came
into existence. This corpus became the basis for the
dictionaries and a number of English grammar books. The
corpus was created by a team of scholars led by John Sinclair.
The project uses the so-called Birmingham Collection of Texts
(The Birmingham Collection of Texts), which includes 20
million uses of written and spoken texts. The main corpus
contains 7.3 million words, and the so-called “reserve corpus”
13 million. The corpus consists of 75% of the written texts,
25% of the spoken texts. The COBUILD corpus contains texts
published between the 1960s and 1982. The written speech
consists mainly of prose fiction texts. The corpus captures oral
codified speech, which uses only common non-special
vocabulary. 75% of the spoken speech is the speech of men
over 16 years old, 25% is the speech of women. 20% of the
corpus consists of texts of the American English. According to
Johansson, the COBUILD project was a breakthrough for its
time for a number of reasons:
1) the corpus exceeded 20 million word uses;
2) the sources were full texts rather than short fragments;
3) it was the most representative and included spoken and
written texts of various genres. COBUILD became the most
voluminous corpus of its time and formed the basis of the
Collins English Dictionary, the Collins COBUILD Dictionary
of English (1987)

9

.

The Longman Corpus Network

Another megacorpus that was created in the late

1980s by a group led by D. Summers in the Longman
Publishing House, is the Longman Corpus Network. This
corpus network is now a commercial database consisting of
five main corpora:

1) The Longman Corpus of Learners' English (10

million word uses);

2) The Longman Written American Corpus (100

million word uses);

9

The history of COBUILD. URL:

https://www.collinsdictionary.com/cobuild/


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81

3) The Longman Spoken American Corpus (5 million

word uses);

4) The Longman / Lancaster English Language

Corpus (30 million word uses)

5) The Spoken British Corpus (10 million word

uses)

10

.

Kennedy writes, that although each part of the

Longman Corpus Network was set up for a specific purpose,
the combined corpus became a powerful tool, recording a
large variety of texts of different genres and speech produced
by native and non-native speakers of English.

This type of corpus has been used to create

dictionaries and textbooks on communicative English
grammar. Later, the spoken English corpus was included into
the spoken part of the British National Corpus

11

.


The International Corpus of English

The International Corpus of English (ICE) was

developed at University College London under the direction of
Sidney Greenbaum in 1996. The aim of the project was to
collect texts of regional variants of English. The sub-corpora
include spoken and written texts of regional variants of
English: Britain (ICE-GB), East Africa, India, New Zealand,
Singapore, Canada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Philippines, USA,
Cameroon, Fiji, Ireland, Kenya, Malta, Malaysia, Pakistan,
Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago.

All sub-corpora contain 60% written texts and 40%

spoken transcripts. The dialogic speech subcorpus includes the
following genres of spoken language: private conversations
(face-to-face and telephone conversations) and public
conversations (lessons, radio and television talks, TV and
radio interviews, parliamentary debates, business discussions,
face to face meetings.

The sub-corpus of monological speech is divided into

two parts. The first includes statements of spontaneous speech
(commentary, speech at demonstrations and in court). The
second part contains prepared read-alouds (TV and radio
news, TV and radio talks (talk shows).

Each subcorpus includes written texts of different

types and recordings of oral speech. Currently, the British
component of the corpus (ICE-GB) is fully prepared and its
texts are provided with morphological and syntactic markup.
The volume of each national subcorpus is 1 million words.
The British component of the corpus is distributed on disk on
a fee basis and a small fragment of it (20 thousand copies) is
freely available.


The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English

The Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English

(MICASE) contains approximately 1.8 million words of
transcribed speech obtained from various sources (lectures,
discussions, seminars, interviews, student presentations, thesis
defense). The corpus includes English native speakers’ speech

10

Leech G. A brief users' guide to the grammatical tagging of

the British National Corpus. URL:
http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/docs/gramtag.html

11

The British National Corpus. URL:

http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk

moreover, information about the speaker is given in the
transcription name. All transcriptions are written in spelling
correct form and do not contain markings. Corpus is publicly
available and allows transcriptions of individual records to be
searched for by transcription and speaker parameters. The
characteristics of the speaker include: academic role (teacher,
graduate, student, doctor, researcher, etc.), native language
(English - native language, English - non-native language,
American English, other variants of English), native language
(with non-native English). Transcription attributes include:
type of event (consultation, colloquium, thesis, interviews,
etc.), university unit (humanities and arts, biology and health,
etc.), academic discipline, academic level of the participant,
level of interactivity of the event (monologue, discussion). In
addition, it is possible to search for specific words and
collocations by selecting the parameters.


The Third Generation Corpora

The trend towards compiling larger corpora

continued even after the 2000s. А. Mauranen, S. Kubler and
H. Zinsmeister describe this generation by the slogan "the
bigger the corpus, the better"

12

, and L. Flowerdew is the first

to call this period the generation of giant corpus

13

. At this

time, a number of new corpora emerged (COCA, Google
Books Ngram), with the volume reaching several billion
words. The large volume of corpora made it possible to carry
out frequency studies on a larger scale and to study
collocations consisting of three, four or more words.

The early 2010s were marked by the emergence of

great technical possibilities: the fourth generation of BNCweb
(2009), CQPweb (2012), SketchEngine (2013), Wmatrix
(2013), functionally similar to the third generation of
concordancers,

were

developed.

Fourth-generation

concordancers have been developed to address the following
issues: limited PC power, incompatibility of PC operating
systems and legal restrictions on the distribution of enclosures.
To solve the legal issues and simplify the access procedure,
the enclosures moved to online versions, which increased the
speed of processing requests and increased the number of
users.

Direct access became available through a web

browser equipped with an Online search engine. The fourth
generation of concordancers works online and allows a
contrasting analysis of a small private corpus with BNC
corpus or texts from Internet. M. Davies calls fourth-
generation concordancers hybrid corpora, as their interface is

12

Kuebler, S. & Zinsmeister, H. Corpus Linguistics and

Linguistically Annotated Corpora. London: Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2005.

13

. Flowerdew, L. The argument for using English specialized

corpora to understand academic and professional language. In:
Connor, U. & Upton, T. (eds) Discourse in the Professions:
Perspectives

from

Corpus

Linguistics.

Amsterdam:

Benjamins, 2004. 11–33 p.


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3662

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Peer Reviewed Journal

Volume: 9| Issue: 4| April 2023|| Journal DOI: 10.36713/epra2013

||

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Impact Factor 2023

:

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82

a kind of common field for corpus creation and frequency
analysis on morphemic, lexical, syntactic and phrase levels

14

.

REFERENCES

1.

Svartvik, J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years on / J.Svartvik. –
Amsterdam, NY 2007. – P. 11-27

2.

Beckett, A. A Concordance to Shakespeare: Suited to all the
Editions. Printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, 1787. 167-183
p.

3.

Tribble C. What are concordances and how are they used //
The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics / ed. by A.
O'Keeffe, M. McCarthy. 2010. P. 167–183.

4.

O'Keeffe, A. & McCarthy, M.'Historical perspective: What
are corpora and how have they evolved?'. The Routledge
Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. London: Routledge, 2010.
3-13 p.

5.

Svartvik J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years // Corpus
Linguistics 25 Years On / ed. by R. Faccinetti, 2007. 11–27
p.

6.

The LOB Corpus. URL:
http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/CoRD/corpora/LOB/index.htm
l

7.

Baker P., Hardie A., McEnery T. Glossary of Corpus
Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press, 2006. 192 p.

8.

Xiao R. Well-known and influential corpora // Corpus
Linguistics: An International Handbook / ed. by A. Ludeling,
M. Kyto. 2008. 383–457 p.

9.

The history of COBUILD. URL:
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/cobuild/

10.

Leech G. A brief users' guide to the grammatical tagging of
the British National Corpus. URL:
http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/docs/gramtag.html

11.

The British National Corpus. URL:

12.

http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk

13.

Kuebler, S. & Zinsmeister, H. Corpus Linguistics and
Linguistically Annotated Corpora. London: Bloomsbury
Publishing, 2005.

14.

Flowerdew, L. The argument for using English specialized
corpora to understand academic and professional language.
In: Connor, U. & Upton, T. (eds) Discourse in the
Professions:

Perspectives

from

Corpus

Linguistics.

Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2004. 11–33 p.

15.

Davies, M. Corpora: an introduction. In: Biber, D. &
Reppen, R. (eds) The Cambridge Handbook of English
Corpus Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. 2015. pp.
11–31.

14

Davies, M. Corpora: an introduction. In: Biber, D. &

Reppen, R. (eds) The Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus
Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. 2015. pp. 11–31.

Библиографические ссылки

Svartvik, J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years on / J.Svartvik. – Amsterdam, NY 2007. – P. 11-27

Beckett, A. A Concordance to Shakespeare: Suited to all the Editions. Printed for G.G.J. and J. Robinson, 1787. 167-183 p.

Tribble C. What are concordances and how are they used // The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics / ed. by A. O'Keeffe, M. McCarthy. 2010. P. 167–183.

O'Keeffe, A. & McCarthy, M.'Historical perspective: What are corpora and how have they evolved?'. The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Linguistics. London: Routledge, 2010. 3-13 p.

Svartvik J. Corpus linguistics 25+ years // Corpus Linguistics 25 Years On / ed. by R. Faccinetti, 2007. 11–27 p.

The LOB Corpus. URL: http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/CoRD/corpora/LOB/index.html

Baker P., Hardie A., McEnery T. Glossary of Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh University Press, 2006. 192 p.

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